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Measurement invariance across educational levels and gender in 12-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) on caregivers of people with dementia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 August 2017

Chung-Ying Lin*
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong
Li-Jung Elizabeth Ku
Department of Public Health, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
Amir H. Pakpour
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran; Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden
Correspondence should be addressed to: C.-Y. Lin, PhD, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 11 Yuk Choi Rd, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Phone: +852-2766-6755; Fax: +852-2764-1435. Email:



The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) is a commonly used self-report to assess caregiver burden. A 12-item short form of the ZBI has been developed; however, its measurement invariance has not been examined across some different demographics. It is unclear whether different genders and educational levels of a population interpret the ZBI items similarly. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the measurement invariance of the 12-item ZBI across gender and educational levels in a Taiwanese sample.


Caregivers who had a family member with dementia (n = 270) completed the ZBI through telephone interviews. Three confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were conducted: Model 1 was the configural model, Model 2 constrained all factor loadings, Model 3 constrained all factor loadings and item intercepts. Multiple group CFAs and the differential item functioning (DIF) contrast under Rasch analyses were used to detect measurement invariance across males (n = 100) and females (n = 170) and across educational levels of junior high schools and below (n = 86) and senior high schools and above (n = 183).


The fit index differences between models supported the measurement invariance across gender and across educational levels (∆ comparative fit index (CFI) = −0.010 and 0.003; ∆ root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = −0.006 to 0.004). No substantial DIF contrast was found across gender and educational levels (value = −0.36 to 0.29).


The ZBI is appropriate for combined use and for comparisons in caregivers across gender and different educational levels in Taiwan.

Research Article
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2017 

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