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Gender and Deindustrialization: A Transnational Historiographical Review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 April 2024

Jackie Clarke*
Affiliation:
School of Modern Languages and Cultures, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Arthur McIvor
Affiliation:
Department of Humanities, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
Anna McEwan
Affiliation:
School of Humanities, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
Sinead Burns
Affiliation:
School of History, Anthropology, Philosophy and Politics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UK
*
Corresponding author: Jackie Clarke; Email: jackie.clarke@glasgow.ac.uk

Abstract

This contribution takes stock of the growing research on deindustrialization from a gender perspective. Much of the work in deindustrialization studies is rooted in local studies, within single national contexts. This article provides a perspective that cuts across case studies and national historiographies. It reviews findings on the implications of deindustrialization for working-class masculinities and considers the extent to which research has privileged a focus on white masculinity in crisis (a theme which is more present in some national contexts than others). The article goes on to show how a more complex and nuanced understanding of gender, class, and race is emerging. It highlights women workers’ experience of deindustrialization and considers the ways in which deindustrialization is associated with a restructuring of gender relations. Acknowledging some of the limitations of the current state of research, the article points to a number of potential avenues for further enquiry.

Type
Special Feature
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2024. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of International Labor and Working-Class History, Inc.

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References

Notes

1. We use the term deindustrialization here while recognizing that its usefulness has been debated and that it has been more associated with certain national historiographies than others. In Germany, for example, it is more common to speak of “Strukturwandel” or structural change, while in France the term “la désindustrialisation” has only come to be widely used in the last two decades. Nonetheless, reading across these linguistic and cultural boundaries, it is possible to identify a body of work that we label here as “deindustrialization studies,” which has been concerned with the social, cultural, and spatial implications of the radical decline in industrial employment in the major Western industrial economies since the mid-twentieth century. On the origins, uses and usefulness of the term, see Jim Tomlinson, “De-industrialization: Strengths and Weaknesses as a Key Concept for Understanding Post-War British History,” Urban History 47 (2020): 199–219; Steven High, “The Radical Origins of the Deindustrialization Thesis: From Dependency to Capital Flight and Community Abandonment,” Labour/Le Travail 91 (2023): 31–56; Marion Fontaine and Xavier Vigna, “Introduction. La Désindustrialisation, une histoire en cours,” 20&21: Revue d’histoire 144 (2019): 2–17.

2. Steven High, Industrial Sunset: The Making of North America’s Rustbelt (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003); Jefferson Cowie and Joseph Heathcott, eds., Beyond the Ruins: The Meanings of Deindustrialization (Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 2003); Barry Bluestone and Bennett Harrison, The Deindustrialization of America (New York: Basic Books, 1982).

3. The activity of networks such as DéPOT (Deindustrialization and the Politics of our Time, led by Steven High, Concordia, but with partners in the UK, Germany, France, and Italy) and CONDE (Confronting Decline: Challenges of Deindustrialization in Western Societies since the 1970s, led by Andreas Wirsching and Martina Steber, Leibniz Institute for Contemporary History, Munich with partners in Germany and Luxembourg) testify to the vibrancy of deindustrialization research in Europe, as does the choice of the theme “Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and Economic Transitions: Transnational Perspectives from Labour History” for the 58th International Conference of Labour and Social History in Linz in 2023. Recent special issues include Fontaine and Vigna, eds., “La Désindustrialisation, une histoire en cours,” and Jörg Arnold, Tobias Becker, and Otto Saumarez Smith, “The Deindustrializing City in the UK and Germany: Empirical Findings and Conceptual Approaches in Comparative Perspective,” Urban History 47, no. 2 (May 2020): 194–98.

4. Jim Tomlinson “Deindustrialization not Decline: A New Metanarrative for Post-war British History,” Twentieth-Century British History 27, no. 1 (March 2016): 76–99.

5. Bluestone and Harrison, The Deindustrialization of America.

6. Cowie and Heathcott, eds., Beyond the Ruins, 13.

7. Notable contributions to this literature include Cowie and Heathcott, eds., Beyond the Ruins; Alice Mah, Industrial Ruination, Community and Place: Landscapes and Legacies of Urban Decline (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012); Tim Strangleman, James Rhodes, and Sherry Linkon, eds., “Crumbling Cultures: Deindustrialization, Class and Memory,” special issue of International Labor and Working-Class History 84 (Fall 2013); Steven High, Lachlan MacKinnon, and Andy Perchard, eds., The Deindustrialized World (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2017); Sherry Lee Linkon, The Half-life of Deindustrialization: Working-class Writing about Economic Restructuring (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2018).

8. This is clear, for example, in a series of British films that enjoyed international success: Brassed Off (1996), The Full Monty (1997) and Billy Elliot (2000). On US representations see Linkon, The Half-life of Deindustrialization.

9. This is reflected, for example, in the spread of contributions to Strangleman, Rhodes and Linkon, eds., “Crumbling Cultures,” ILWCH (2013) which built on other significant studies including Sherry Lee Linkon and John Russo, Steeltown USA: Work and Memory in Youngstown (Lawrence, Kansas; University Press of Kansas, 2002) and High, Industrial Sunset. In Germany, the Ruhr coalfield is a long-established object of interest for social historians and this historiography developed against a backdrop of restructuring, e.g. Werner Abelshauser, Der Ruhrkohlenbergbau seit 1945: Wiederaufbau, Krise, Anpassung (Munich: C.H. Beck, 1984); Klaus Tenfelde, ed., Sozialgeschichte des Bergbaus im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Papers presented to the International Mining History Congress Bochum, September 3rd–7th, 1989) (Munich: C.H.Beck, 1992). On the French coal and steel regions see, for example, Marion Fontaine, Fin d’un monde ouvrier, Liévin 1974 (Paris; Editions de l'EHESS, 2014) and Pascal Raggi, La Désindustrialisation de la Lorraine de fer (Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2019). The continuing interest in regions defined by heavy industry is also reflected in recent works such as Ewan Gibbs, Coal Country: The Meaning and Memory of Deindustrialization (London; University of London Press, 2021); Stefan Berger, ed., Constructing Industrial Pasts: Heritage, Historical Culture and Identity in Regions Undergoing Structural Economic Transformation (Oxford and New York; Berghahn, 2019); and several contributions to Fontaine and Vigna, eds., “La Désindustrialisation, une histoire en cours”.

10. On the symbolic significance of miners and the mining industry, for example, see Hanna Diamond, “Miners, Masculinity and the ‘Bataille du charbon’,” Modern and Contemporary France 19, no. 1 (2011): 69–84; Marion Fontaine, Le Racing-Club de Lens etles Gueules noires: essai d’histoire sociale” (Paris; Les Indes savantes, 2010); Fontaine, Fin d’un monde ouvrier; Jörg Arnold, “‘That Rather Sinful City of London’: The Coal Miner, the City and the Country in the British Cultural Imagination, c. 1969–2014,” Urban History, 47, no. 2 (2020): 292–310 and Jörg Arnold, The British Miner in the Age of Deindustrialization: A Political and Cultural History (Oxford; Oxford University Press, 2023).

11. Abelshauser, Der Ruhrkohlenbergbau seit 1945; Tenfelde, ed., Sozialgeschichte des Bergbaus.

12. Marc Matera, Radhika Natarajan, Kennetta Hammond Perry, Camilla Schofield, and Rob Waters, “Marking Race: Empire, Social Democracy, Deindustrialization,” Twentieth-Century British History 34, no. 3 (2023): 17, 6.

13. See James Rhodes and Natalie-Anne Hall, “Racism, Nationalism and the Politics of Resentment in Contemporary England,” in Routledge International Handbook of Contemporary Racisms, ed. John Solomos (London; Routledge, 2020).

14. Linkon, The Half-life of Deindustrialization, 148. See also, Sherry Lee Linkon, “Men without Work: White Working-Class Masculinity in Deindustrialization Fiction,” Contemporary Literature 55, no. 1 (2014): 148–67.

15. E.g. Paul Willis, Learning to Labor: How Working-Class Kids Get Working-Class Jobs (New York: Columbia University Press, 2017, 1st ed. 1977); Lynne Segal, Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men (London: Virago, 1997); Pat Ayers, “Work Culture and Gender: The Making of Masculinities in Post-War Liverpool,” in Working-class Masculinities in Britain, 1850 to the Present, ed. Eileen Yeo, special edition, Labour History Review 69, no. 2 (2004): 153–68; R. Johnston and A. McIvor, “Dangerous Work, Hard Men and Broken Bodies: Masculinity in the Clydeside Heavy Industries, c1930-1970s,” in Working-class Masculinities in Britain, 1850 to the Present, ed. Yeo, special edition, Labour History Review 69, no. 2 (2004): 135–52; Xavier Vigna, Histoire des Ouvriers en France au XXe siècle (Paris: Perrin, 2012); Dagmar Kift, Die Männerwelt des Bergbaus (Essen: Klartext Verlag, 2011). Much of this literature is also indebted to pioneering studies of masculinity such as Raewyn Connell, Masculinities (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1st ed. 1995; 3rd ed. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020) and Michael Roper and John Tosh, eds., Manful Assertions (London: Routledge, 1991).

16. Ariane Mak, “En grève et en guerre: les mineurs britanniques au prisme des enquêtes du Mass Observation, 1939-1945” (PhD thesis, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 2018); Hermann Schulz, Hartmut Radebold, und Jürgen Reulecke, Söhne ohne Väter. Erfahrungen der Kriegsgeneration (Berlin, 2007); Juliette Pattinson, Arthur McIvor, and Lynsey Robb, Men in Reserve (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017); Kift, Die Männerwelt des Bergbaus, 29–30.

17. Martin Lücke, “Von der gefährlichen Arbeit unter Tage. Männer- und geschlechter geschichtliche Perspektiven einer Geschichte des Ruhrgebiets,” Forum Post, https://www.frauenruhrgeschichte.de/frg_wiss_texte/von-der-gefaehrlichen-arbeit-unter-tage-maenner-und-geschlechtergeschichtliche-perspektiven-einer-geschichte-des-ruhrgebiets.

18. Linkon, The Half-Life of Deindustrialization; Linkon, “Men without Work”.

19. Daniel Wight, Workers not Wasters: Masculine Respectability, Consumption and Employment in Central Scotland (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993).

20. Angela Coyle, Redundant Women (London: The Women's Press, 1984).

21. Andrew Perchard, “‘Broken Men’ and ‘Thatcher’s Children’: Memory and Legacy in Scotland’s Coalfields,” International Labor and Working-Class History 84 (2013): 78–98.

22. Valerie Walkerdine and Luis Jimenez, Gender, Work and Community after Deindustrialization: A Psychosocial Approach (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).

23. This term refers to the embodied value of strength and toughness derived from the gendered division of labor and the association of many industrial jobs with hard physical effort. Anoop Nayak, “Displaced Masculinities: Chavs, Youth and Class in the Post-Industrial City,” Sociology 40, no. 5 (2006): 813–31.

24. For example, union membership fell in the USA from around 30 percent to 10 percent and in the UK from near 50 percent to 23 percent.

25. Wight, Workers not Wasters; David A. Kideckel, Getting By in Postsocialist Romania: Labor, the Body and Working-class Culture (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008), 163.

26. Fontaine, Fin d’un monde ouvrier.

27. See, for example, Vigna, Histoire des ouvriers en France (p.11 and passim) on “worker centrality” in twentieth-century France.

28. David A. Kideckel, “Miners and Wives in Romania’s Jiu Valley: Perspectives on Postsocialist Class, Gender and Social Change,” Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 11, no. 1 (2004): 56.

29. Robert Storey, “Beyond the Body-Count? Injured Workers in the Aftermath of Deindustrialization,” in The Deindustrialized World, eds. Steven High et al. (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2017), 61.

30. Arthur McIvor, “Deindustrialization Embodied: Work, Health and Disability in the United Kingdom since c1950,” in The Deindustrialized World, eds. Steven High et al. (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2017), 25–45; Anne Case and Angus Deaton, Deaths of Despair and the Future of Capitalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2020); Gábor Scheiring, David Stuckler, and Lawrence King, “Deindustrialization and Deaths of Despair: Mapping the Impact of Industrial Decline on Ill Health,” Political Economy Research Institute Working Paper Series 530; Lawrence King, Gábor Scheiring, and Elias Nosrati, “Deaths of Despair in Comparative Perspective,” Annual Review of Sociology 48 (2022): 299–317.

31. The impact of deindustrialization on male mortality rates is discussed in the references cited in the previous note. While the literature on health outcomes for women is less developed, there is scattered evidence of mental health impacts. For example, Manuella Roupnel-Fuentes has shown that 2 years after the closures of four domestic appliances factories in France with a mixed workforce, women were nearly three times more likely than men to report having had recourse to antianxiety medication. This may be indicative of gendered reporting patterns or willingness to seek medical help. Nonetheless, it suggests a significant health impact on female workers. See Manuella Roupnel-Fuentes, Les Chômeurs de Moulinex (Paris: Presses universitaires françaises, 2011), 229.

32. Máirtín Mac an Ghaill, The Making of Men: Masculinities, Sexualities and Schooling (Buckingham: Open University Press, 1994); Walkerdine and Jimenez, Gender, Work and Community; Linkon, “White Working-Class Masculinity”; Michael S. Ward, From Labouring to Learning: Working-Class Masculinities, Education and De-Industrialization (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).

33. Linda McDowell, Redundant Masculinities: Employment Change and White Working-Class Youth (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2003), 222.

34. Nayak, “Last of the ‘Real Geordies’? White masculinities and the subcultural response to deindustrialization,” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 21, no. 1 (2003): 14. See also Alistair Fraser and Andy Clark, “Damaged Hardmen: Organized Crime and the Half-Life of Deindustrialization,” British Journal of Sociology 72, no. 4 (2021): 1–15 on masculine sub-cultures and crime in a deindustrialized area and Jay Emery, “After Coal: Affective-Temporal Processes of Belonging and Alienation in the Deindustrializing Nottinghamshire Coalfield, UK,” Frontiers in Sociology 5, no.38 (2020): 8, on the figure of the “typical Mansfield lad”.

35. James Ferns, “Workers’ Identities in Transition: Deindustrialization and Scottish Steelworkers,” Journal of Working-Class Studies 4, no. 2 (2019): 55–60.

36. See also Simon Cross and Barbara Bagilhole, “Girls’ Jobs for the Boys? Men, Masculinity and Non-Traditional Occupations,” Gender, Work and Organization 9, no. 2 (2002): 204–26; McDowell, Redundant Masculinities.

37. High, Industrial Sunset, 69–70.

38. George Ackers, “The Impact of Deindustrialization on Masculine Career Identity an Intergenerational Study of Men from Naval Repair Families in Medway, Kent” (PhD thesis, Huddersfield University, 2017), 3.

39. Jim Phillips, Valerie Wright, and Jim Tomlinson, “Being a ‘Clydesider’ in the Age of Deindustrialization: Skilled Male Identity and Economic Restructuring in the West of Scotland since the 1960s,” Labor History 61, no. 2 (2019): 151–69.

40. Adam King, “Gender and Working-Class Identity in Deindustrializing Sudbury, Ontario,” Journal of Working-Class Studies 4, no. 2 (2019): 91.

41. McDowell, Redundant Masculinities, 237; see also Ward, From Labouring to Learning.

42. Jefferson Cowie, Capital Moves. RCA’s Seventy Year Quest for Cheap Labor (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999).

43. Amandine Tabutaud, “À la croisée de la Seine-Saint-Denis et de la Haute-Vienne: Les ouvrières aux prises avec la désindustrialisation (1970-1980),” 20&21. Revue d’histoire 144 (2019): 135–37.

44. On developments in the textile sector, see, among others, Jane Collins, Threads: Gender, Labor and Power in the Global Apparel Industry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003); Angela Hale and Maggie Burns, “The Phase-out of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement from the Perspective of Workers,” in Threads of Labour: Garment Industry Supply Chains from the Workers’ Perspective, eds. Angela Hale and Jane Wills (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005); Rory Stride, “Gender, Loss and Memory: Women’s Experiences of Deindustrialisation in the West of Scotland Textile Industry since 1970” (PhD thesis, University of Strathclyde, 2023); Chiara Bonfiglioli, Women and Industry in the Balkans: The Rise and Fall of the Yugoslav Textile Sector (London: Bloomsbury, 2019).

45. A caveat is offered by Eloisa Betti, who reminds us that the link between gender and precarity is not an invention of the post-Fordist era. Eloisa Betti, “Gender and Precarious Labor in a Historical Perspective: Italian Women and Precarious Work between Fordism and Post-Fordism,” International Labor and Working-Class History 89 (2016): 64–83.

46. Roupnel-Fuentes, Les Chômeurs. See also Elisabetta Pernigotti, Désindustrialisation et précarisation au féminin en France et en Italie (Paris: L'Harmattan, 2018) which offers a transnational comparison of gendered precarity in deindustrialized rural areas in Lower Normandy and Piedmont.

47. Beese, “Strukturwandel der Frauenerwerbsarbeit,” 154.

48. Thomas Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), 144.

49. Vincent Gay, Pour la dignité. Ouvriers immigrés et conflits sociaux dans les années 1980 (Lyon: Presses universitaires de Lyon, 2021), esp. 213–31, 257–80.

50. Lawson, “Nothing Left but Smoke and Mirrors,” 46–7; Lauren Laframboise, “La grève de la fierté: Resisting Deindustrialization in Montreal’s Garment Industry,” Labor/Le Travail 91 (2023): 57–88.

51. Lawson, “Nothing Left but Smoke and Mirrors,” 46–7.

52. Ibid., 59.

53. Tabutaud, “À la croisée de la Seine-Saint-Denis et de la Haute-Vienne”.

54. Roupnel-Fuentes, Les Chômeurs de Moulinex; Jackie Clarke, “Closing Time: Deindustrialization and Nostalgia in Contemporary France,” History Workshop Journal 79, no. 1 (2015): 107–25; Fanny Gallot, En Découdre (Paris: La Découverte, 2015); Bonfiglioli, Women and Industry in the Balkans; Aimee Loiselle, “Puerto Rican Needle Workers and Colonial Migrations: Deindustrialization as Pathways Lost,” Journal of Working-Class Studies 4, no. 2 (2019): 40–54; Andy Clark, “‘They were almost stealing our identity and taking it to Ireland’: Deindustrialization, Gender, and Resistance in Scotland,” in The Deindustrialized World, eds. Steven High et al. (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2017), 331–47 and Andy Clark, Fighting Deindustrialisation: Scottish Women’s Factory Occupations, 1980-1982 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2022); Ewan Gibbs, Coal Country; Rory Stride, “Women, Work and Deindustrialization: The Case of James Templeton and Co., Glasgow, c1960-1981,” Scottish Labour History 54 (2019): 154–80.

55. Constance Sorrentino, “International Comparisons of Labor Force Participation 1960-1981,” Monthly Labor Review (February 1983): 23–36; OECD, OECD Employment Outlook (OECD: 2002), 66–67. On the impact of women remaining in the labor market after marriage and children, see, for example, the French data in Margaret Maruani, Travail et emploi des femmes (Paris: La Découverte, 3rd ed., 2006), 15–16.

56. Gallot, En Découdre, 19–30.

57. Gallot, En Découdre, 93–114; Tabutaud, “À la croisée de la Seine-Saint-Denis et de la Haute-Vienne,” 142; Stride, “Women, Work and Deindustrialization”; Romain Castellesi, “Les armes des faibles et la faiblesse des armes”: actions et réactions ouvrières en situation de désindustrialisation en France (1951-2012), Doctoral thesis, Université de Bourgogne Franche Comté, December 2021, 385–394.

58. On the ways in which women’s mobilization against industrial restructuring sometimes overtook and/or challenged patriarchal union structures, see, for example, Maud Bracke, “Labour, Gender and Deindustrialisation: Women Workers at Fiat (Italy 1970s-1980s),” Contemporary European History 28, no. 4 (2019): 484–99; Andy Clark, Fighting Deindustrialisation.

59. Castellesi, “Les armes des faibles”; Fonow, “Protest Engendered”; Alexandra Oeser, “Délocalisations industrielles au XXIe siècle et masculinités entre valorisation de la force physique et sa maîtrise,” Cahiers du Genre 67, no. 2 (2019): 49–72.

60. Eve Meuret-Campfort, « Lutter comme les mecs »: le genre du militantisme dans une usine de femmes (Vulaines-sur-seine: Editions du Croquant, 2021).

61. Gallot, Fanny, “La revanche du soutien-gorge. Le corps des ouvrières de la lingerie (1968-2012),” Clio. Femmes, Genre, Histoire 38, no. 2 (2013): 61–78.

62. Lois Weis, Class Reunion: The Remaking of the American White Working Class (London and New York: Routledge, 2004), 167.

63. Lois Weis, Class Reunion.

64. Pernigotti, Désindustrialisation et précarisation; Kideckel, Getting By, 180–81; Anni Donaldson, “An Oral History of Domestic Abuse in Scotland, 1945-1992” (PhD diss., University of Strathclyde, 2019), 157, 160; Chitra Joshi, “‘De-industrialization’ and the Crisis of Male Identities,” International Review of Social History 47 (2002): 159–75.

65. Joshi, “Deindustrialization” and the Crisis of Male Identities, 175. Kideckel offers another example of a community organized around highly patriarchal relations in “Miners and Wives”.

66. Jeffrey Fagan and Angela Browne, “Violence Between Spouses and Intimates: Physical Aggression Between Men and Women in Intimate Relationships,” in Understanding and Preventing Violence, eds. A Reiss and J Roth (Washington, DC, 1994), 115–292; Ross MacMillan and Rosemary Gartner, “When she brings home the bacon: Labour-force participation and the risk of spousal violence against women,” Journal of Marriage and Family 61 (1999): 947–58. For work on an earlier period, see Annemarie Hughes, Gender and Political Identities in Scotland, 1919-1939 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010); Annemarie Hughes, “The ‘Non-Criminal’ Class: Wife-beating in Scotland (c. 1800-1949),” Crime, History & Societies 14, no. 2 (2010): 31–53.

67. Anne Balay, Steel Closets: Voices of Gay, Lesbian and Transgender Steelworkers (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014).

68. See Diarmaid Kelliher, “Solidarity and Sexuality: Lesbians and Gays Support the Miners 1984-5,” History Workshop 77, no. 1 (2014): 240–62. This story is also dramatized in the 2014 film Pride.

69. Christine Walley, Exit Zero: Family and Class in Postindustrial Chicago (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2013), 165.

70. Walley, Exit Zero, 68.

71. Ibid., 69.

72. Walkerdine and Jimenez, Gender and Community, 172.

73. Walkerdine and Jimenez, Gender and Community, 163. The burden on women as partners or wives is also highlighted in Kideckel, “Miners and Wives”.

74. Gabriel Winant, “‘Hard Times Make for Hard Arteries and Hard Livers’: Deindustrialization, Biopolitics, and the Making of a New Working Class,” Journal of Social History 53, no. 1 (2019): 109, 123.

75. See, for example, Kristin Ross, Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995).

76. Winant, “Hard Times Make for Hard Arteries and Hard Livers,” 108.

77. Winant, “Hard Times Make for Hard Arteries and Hard Livers”. See also Gabriel Winant, The Next Shift: The Fall of Industry and the Rise of Healthcare in Rust Belt America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2021).

78. Ebru Kongar, “Is Deindustrialization Good for Women? Evidence from the United States,” Feminist Economics 14, no. 1 (2008): 73–92.

79. Kideckel, “Miners and Wives”; King et al. “Deaths of Despair”.

80. Christian Wicke, Stefan Berger, and Jana Golombek, “Burdens of Eternity: Heritage, Identity and the ‘Great Transition’ in the Ruhr,” The Public Historian: Special Issue: Deindustrialization, Heritage and Representation 39, no. 4 (2017): 23.

81. Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite and Nathalie Thomlinson, “Vernacular Discourse of Gender Equality in the Postwar British Working Class,” Past and Present 254, no. 1 (2022): 277–313; Ewan Gibbs, Coal Country, 119.

82. Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite and Nathalie Thomlinson, “National Women Against Pit Closures: Gender, Trade Unionism and Community Activism in the Miners’ Strike 1984-5,” Contemporary British History 32, no. 1 (2018): 78–100. On gender and community activism, see also the discussion of environmental activism in Sydney, Nova Scotia in Lachlan MacKinnon, Closing Sysco: Industrial Decline in Atlantic Canada’s Steel City (Toronto: University of Toronto, 2020).

83. Marion Henry, “Des coulisses à la scène: la féminisation des brass bands dans les bassins miniers britanniques (1947-1984),” Le Mouvement Social 274 (2021): 119–35.