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  • Aileen Murphy (a1), Elisabeth Fenwick (a2), William D. Toff (a3), Matthew P. Neilson (a2), Colin Berry (a4), Neal Uren (a5), Keith G. Oldroyd (a6) and Andrew H. Briggs (a2)...


Aortic stenosis (AS) is caused by age-related calcific degeneration of the aortic valve (1). Initially, cases are asymptomatic but, from the point that symptoms first develop, there is rapid progression and if left untreated survival estimates are low (2–3 years) (1). Therefore, managing AS effectively and efficiently is a priority for health systems with increasing healthcare costs and longer life expectancy.



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