Author's Note: Based on research supported by a grant from theTranslations Programs N.E.H.
1 Charles, J. Adams, ‘IslamicReligion,’ Part II, Middle East Studies Association Bulletin,5, 1 (1 02 1971), 21–22.
2 The Land Reform Law of 16 May 1960 was declaredunconstitutional and contrary to the sharī′a in a fatwa issued by the marji′ at-taqlid, āyatullāhBurūjirdī. See Ann, K. S. Lambton, ‘AReconsideration of the Position of the marja′ al-taqlīd and theReligious Institution,’ Studia Islamica, 20(1964), 118.
3 See papers by Nikki, Keddie, Hamid, Algar, and Gustav, Thaiss, and bibliography in Scholars, Saints, and Sufis: Muslim Religious Institutions in the Middle East since1500, ed. Nikki, R. Keddie (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1972).
4 ‘The Proofs of Islam: Religion and Politics inIran,’ in Arabic and Islamic Studies in Honor of Hamilton A. R. Gibb, ed. George, Makdisi (Leiden, 1965), pp.122–123.
5 Religion and State in Iran: The Role of the Ulamain the Qajar Period (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969), p.2.
6 Ibid.Cf., Joseph Eliash, ‘TheIthnā ′asharī-Shī′ī Juristic Theoryof Political and Legal Authority,’ Studia Islamica, 29(1969), 17–30.
7 Hamid, Algar, ‘The OppositionalRole of the Ulama in Twentieth-Century Iran,’ in Keddie, , Scholars, Saints, and Sufis, p. 235.
8 ′Agā′idal-Imāmiyya, preface by Hamīd, Hafnī Dawood (Cairo, 1961), pp. 34–35.
9 ′Shi‘a’, in Islam—The Straight Path: Islam interpreted by Muslims, ed. Kenneth, W. Morgan (New York, 1958), p.202.
10 Religion and State, p. 52.
11 See Muhammad, Husayn Isfahānī, al-Usūl′alā an-nahj al-hadīth (Najaf 1376/1957). An excellent introductory study of reason as aprinciple of fiqh in Twelver Shi′ism is a Ph.D. dissertation accepted bythe University of al-Azhar in 1971 written by Rushdī Muhammad′Alyān, published with an introduction by Sayyid, Muhammad Taqīal-Hakīm, al-′Aql‘inda’sh-shī'a al-imāmiyya (Baghdad 1393/1973).
12 Scarcia, Cf. G., ‘Intorno allecontroversie tra Ahbārī e Usūlīpresso gli imāmiti di Persia,’ Revista degli StudiOrientali, 33 (1958), 211–250.
14 Kulaynī, , Usūlal-Kāfī (8 vols.; Tehran, 1375/1955);sadūq, , Manlā yahdduruhu'l-faqīh (Tabrīz, 1354/1933), lithographed; Tūsī, , Tahdhībal-Ahkām (10 vols.; Najaf, 1377/1957/1382/1962) and Tūsī, , al-Istibsār (Lucknow, 1307/1889), lithographed.
15 Binder, , ‘The Proofs ofIslam,’ p. 123.
16 Usūl, Vol. I, Kitābfadl al-′ilm, pp. 30–71.
20 Lambton, , ‘A Reconsideration ofthe Position of the marja′ al-taqlīd,’ p. 135. For the full version see Bahthī dar bāra-yiRuhaniyyāt va Marji′iyyāt (Tehran), 12 1962.
21 See also, āyatullāh, Mirzā Hasanal-Hā′irī, Ahkāmash-Shī′a, 2 vols. (2nd ed.; Najaf, 1392/1972), 1, 44.
24 Risālat al-i′tiqādātal-imāmiyya, trans. Fyzee, A. A. A., AShi′ite Creed (London, 1942), p.207.
25 Cf., Hillī,al-Babū′l-Hādī' Ashar, trans. Miller, W. (repr.; London, 1958), paragraph 185 (misprinted  Fourth), p. 68.
26 Fyzee, , A Shi′ite Creed, p. 106.
27 Tūsī, , Kitāb al-Ghayba (Tabriz, 1323/1905), 172 ff., lithographed.
28 Hā′irī enumerates asliable of khums seven items: (I) annual income in excess of one'snecessary expenses to maintain oneself and one's household, whether it isderived from wages and salaries or from rent, dividends, interest, gifts, and bequestsand whether it originates in commerce or trade or agriculture or industry; (2) allminerals: hard, soft, liquid, and gas; (3) all precious and semiprecious stones whetherextracted by mining or diving; (4) lawful earnings mixed with unlawful gain; (5)abandoned treasures; (6) transfer of land to a dhimmī by sale or gift (thenew owner, the dhimmī, must pay a khums of the land'sprice or value); (7) and booty from non-Muslims (AHkām, Vol. I, Kitāb al-khums, pp. 362–367).
29 Koran, Sura 8: 42, Arberry's, trans.(London, 1955), I, 201–202.
30 Kulaynī, , al-Kāfī, 1, 538.
33 Religion and State, p. 16.
37 Fiqh al-Imām Ja′far as-Sādiq, ′ard wa-istidlāl(Beirut 1965), II, 129;cf., Burūjirdī, Risāla-i-tawdīh al-masā′il (Tehran, n.d.), p. 288.
39 Tahdhīb al-Ahkām, IV, 147–148.
40 Sharā′i′ al-islāmfī al-fiqh al-islāmī al-Ja′farī ed. ash-Shaykhal-′Allāmah Muhammad Jawād Maghniyya (Beirut, n.d.), I, 97.
41 Kulaynī, , al-Kāfī, 1, 64–67.
45 Kashshī, Rijāi (Bombay, 1899), p. 263,cf., Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, 1, 189.
46 Islamic Political Thought (Edinburgh, 1968), pp. 110–111.
47 Tūsī, Kitāb al-Ghayba (Najaf, 1385/1965), pp. 242–243. Abundant in TwelverShi′i literature are anecdotes telling of miracles performed by the TwelfthImam and witnessed by pious believers. The Twelver Shi′i doctrine of theHidden Imam recognizes that one may see the Twelfth Imam in one's sleep orone may daydream of him. Such visions, however, carry no juridical–theologicalsignificance except the enhancement of the belief in his existence.
48 On the decline of the status of ShāhIsmā′il I among the qizilbāsh after his defeat at Chaldirān see Savory, R. M., ‘The Principal Offices of the Safavid State during the Reign of Ismā′īlI (907–30/1501–24)’ in Bulletin of the School ofOriental and African Studies, 23, Part I (1960), 91–105.
49 Ibid.; Lambton, , ‘AReconsideration of the Position of the marja′ al-taqlīd,′pp. 116–117, and Minorsky, V., Tadhkiratal-Mulūk, Gibb Memorial New Series XVI (London,1943).