Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A Presence of the Past: The Legal Protection of Singapore's Archaeological Heritage

  • Jack Tsen-Ta Lee (a1)

Abstract

Singapore is not well known for its archaeological heritage. In fact, chance finds in the early twentieth century and systematic archaeological excavations since the 1980s conducted at sites around the Singapore River have unearthed artifacts shedding light on the island's early history. In addition, the value of archaeology for a deeper knowledge of Singapore's British colonial past is increasingly being recognized. Nonetheless, Singapore law provides only a rudimentary framework to facilitate archaeological investigations and protect cultural artifacts. This article considers how the National Heritage Board Act (Cap. 196A, 1994 Rev. Ed.), the Planning Act (Cap. 232, 1998 Rev. Ed.), and the recent Preservation of Monuments Board Act 2009 (No. 16 of 2009, now Cap. 239, 2011 Rev. Ed.) may be strengthened in this regard.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Avieropoulou Choo, Alexandra. Archaeology: A Guide to the Collections, National Museum Singapore. Singapore: National Museum, 1987.
Avieropoulou Choo, Alexandra. Report on the Excavation at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore. Singapore: National Museum, 1986.
Barry, Jennifer. Istana Kampong Glam: Archaeological Excavations at a Nineteenth Century Malay Palace in Singapore. Stamford, Lincolnshire, UK: Rheidol Press, 2009.
Barry, Jennifer. Istana Kampong Glam: European Ceramic from Archaeological Excavations at a Nineteenth Century Malay Palace in Singapore. Stamford, Lincolnshire, UK: Rheidol Press, 2007.
Barry, Jennifer. Pulau Saigon: A Post-Eighteenth Century Archaeological Assemblage Recovered from a Former Island in the Singapore River. Stamford, Lincolnshire, UK: Rheidol Press, 2000.
Bell, Andrew. “Bona Vacantia.” In Interests in Goods (2nd ed.), edited by Palmer, Norman and McKendrick, Ewan, 207–26. London: LLP, 1998.
Blackstone, William. Commentaries on the Laws of England (14th ed.), vol. 1. London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1803.
Bland, Roger. “Treasure Trove and the Case for Reform.” Art, Antiquity and Law 1 (1996): 1126.
Blockley, Marion. “The Ironbridge Gorge: Preservation, Reconstruction, and Presentation of Industrial Heritage.” In The Reconstructed Past: Reconstructions in the Public Interpretation of Archaeology and History, edited by Jameson, John H. Jr., 177–98. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2004.
Briffett, Clive, and Mackee, Jamie, “Environmental Assessment in Singapore: An Enigma Wrapped Up in a Mystery!Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 20, no. 2 (2002): 113–25, doi: 10.3152/147154602781766780.
Cai, Yunci. “Law and Its Impact on Singapore's Built Heritage.” In Encounters with Singapore Legal History: Essays in Memory of Geoffrey Wilson Bartholomew, edited by Tan, Kevin Y[ew] L[ee] and Hor, Michael, 87125. Singapore: Singapore Journal of Legal Studies, 2009.
Chen, Omar. “Ancient Singapore Earthenware Pottery.” In Early Singapore 1300s–1819, edited by Miksic, John N. and Gek, Cheryl-Ann Low Mei, 5572. Singapore: Singapore History Museum, 2004.
Chitty, Joseph. A Treatise on the Law of the Prerogatives of the Crown and the Relative Duties and the Rights of the Subject. London: J. Butterworth, 1820.
Chun, Joseph. “Beyond Real Estate: Sowing the Legal Seeds for an Ethical Public Land Stewardship in Singapore.” Macquarie Journal of International and Comparative Environmental Law 3 (2006): 134.
Chun, Joseph. “Reclaiming the Public Trust in Singapore.” Singapore Academy of Law Journal 17 (2005): 717–46.
Foo, Kim Boon, Heng, Lye Lin, and Lian, Koh Kheng. “Environmental Protection: The Legal Framework.” In Environment and the City: Sharing Singapore's Experience and Future Challenges, edited by Ling, Ooi Giok, 4799. Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies; Times Academic Press, 1995.
Harding, A.J.Monarchy and the Prerogative in Malaysia.” Malaya Law Review 28 (1986): 345–65.
Hayman, Richard, and Horton, Wendy, Ironbridge: History & Guide. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 1999.
Hayman, Richard, Horton, Wendy, and White, Shelley. Archaeology and Conservation in Ironbridge (CBA research report; 123). York: Council for British Archaeology, 1999.
Heng, Derek Thiam Soon. “Export Commodity and Regional Currency: The Role of Chinese Copper Coins in the Melaka Straits, Tenth to Fourteenth Centuries.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 37 (2006): 179203, doi: 10.1017/S0022463406000518.
Hickling, R.H.The Prerogative in Malaysia.” Malaya Law Review 17 (1975): 207–32.
Ho, Hua Chew. “Bukit Brown: Nature in an Old Cemetery.” In Spaces of the Dead: A Case from the Living, edited by Tan, Kevin Yew Lee, 100–13. Singapore: Ethos Books, 2011.
Ing, Noel D.Bona Vacantia. London: Butterworths, 1971.
Ironbridge 2010/2011. Coalbrookdale, Telford, West Midlands: Ironbridge Gorge Museums Trust, 2010, http://www.ironbridge.org.uk/uploadedfiles/Ironbridge_lflt_10.pdf, archived at http://www.webcitation.org/5xP7baQvz (accessed March 24, 2011).
Koh, Kheng Lian. “The Garden City and Beyond: the Legal Framework.” In Environment and the City: Sharing Singapore's Experience and Future Challenges, edited by Ling, Ooi Giok, 148–70. Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies; Times Academic Press, 1995.
Kwa, Chong Guan, Heng, Derek, and Yong, Tan Tai. “The Lure of the Chinese Market.” In Singapore: A 700-year History: From Early Emporium to World City, 1932. Singapore: National Archives, 2009.
Kwa, Chong Guan. “Reconstructing the Lion City.” In Singapore: A 700-Year History: From Early Emporium to World City, 3352. Singapore: National Archives, 2009.
Lee, Jack Tsen-Ta. “Treaties, Time Limits and Treasure Trove: The Legal Protection of Cultural Objects in Singapore.” Art, Antiquity and Law 9 (2004): 237–80.
Lim, Chen Sian. “Archaeology as a Critical Source for Reconstructing the Colonial Past.” In New Perspectives and Sources on the History of Singapore: A Multi-disciplinary Approach, by Soon, Derek Heng Thiam, 125–33. Singapore: National Library Board, 2006.
Low, Cheryl-Ann Mei Gek. “Singapore from the 14th to 19th Century.” In Early Singapore 1300s–1819, edited by Miksic, John N. and Gek, Cheryl-Ann Low Mei, 1440. Singapore: Singapore History Museum, 2004.
Lunney, Mark, “Trespass to Land.” In The Law of Tort (2nd ed.), edited by Oliphant, Ken, 485534. London: LexisNexis Butterworths, 2007.
Lye, Lin Heng. “A Fine City in a Garden—Environmental Law and Governance in Singapore.” Singapore Journal of Legal Studies (2008): 68117
Lye, Lin Heng. “Land Law and the Environment: Re-examining the Concept of Ownership and Forging New Rights and Obligations in a Changed World.” Singapore Academy of Law Journal 22 (2010): 219–25.
Lye, Lin Heng. “Legal Protection of the Natural Environment.” In State of the Natural Environment in Singapore, edited by Briffett, Clive and Chew, Ho Hua, 8395. Singapore: Nature Society, 1999.
McIntosh, Jane. The Practical Archaeologist: How We Know What We Know about the Past. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Merryman, John Henry, “The Retention of Cultural Property.” University of California, Davis, Law Review 21 (1988): 477513, reprinted in John Henry Merryman. Thinking about the Elgin Marbles: Critical Essays on Cultural Property, Art and Law (2nd ed.). Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 2009: 170–203.
Miksic, John N.Archaeological Research on the “Forbidden Hill” of Singapore: Excavations at Fort Canning, 1984. Singapore: National Museum, 1985.
Miksic, John N.Fourteenth Century Chinese Glass Found in Singapore and the Riau Archipelago.” In South East Asia and China: Art, Interaction and Commerce: Colloquies on Art and Archaeology in Asia, No. 17, Held June 6th–8th, 1994, edited by Scott, Rosemary and Guy, John, 252–73. London: University of London; Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, 1995.
Miksic, John N.14th-Century Singapore: A Port of Trade.” In Early Singapore 1300s–1819: Evidence in Maps, Text and Artefacts, edited by Miksic, John N. and Gek, Cheryl-Ann Low Mei, 4154. Singapore: Singapore History Museum, 2004.
Miksic, John N.Old Javanese Gold. Singapore: Ideation, 1990.
Miksic, John N.“Sebuah arca timah hitam dari Tebing Sungai Singapura [A Lead Statue Recently Discovered at a Majapahit-Period Site in Singapore]” (paper presented at the 8th Scientific Archaeology Conference, 15–18 February 1999, Yogyakarta, Indonesia). In Kumpulan Makalah Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi VIII [Collected Papers of Scientific Archaeology Conference VIII], 425–28. Jakarta: Ikatan Ahli Arkeologi Indonesia, 2002.
Miksic, John N., and Sian, Lim Chen. Archaeological Research on the Padang and in the St. Andrew's Cathedral Churchyard: St. Andrew's Cathedral Archaeological Research Project Progress Report Summary September 2003—June 2004. Singapore: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 2004, http://www.seaarchaeology.com/v1/html/sg/pdfs/ARI_Project_Report_version_1.5.pdf, archived at http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20070818192606/http://www.seaarchaeology.com/v1/html/sg/pdfs/ARI_Project_Report_version_1.5.pdf (accessed 26 March, 2011).
Muter, W. Grant. The Buildings of an Industrial Community: Coalbrookdale and Ironbridge. London: Phillimore for the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust, 1979.
Nolan, Donal. “Nuisance.” In The Law of Tort (2nd ed.), edited by Oliphant, Ken, 1101–98. London: LexisNexis Butterworths, 2007.
Palmer, Norman. “Treasure Trove and Title to Discovered Antiquities.” In Interests in Goods, edited by Palmer, Norman and McKendrick, Ewan, 305–44. London: Lloyd's of London Press, 1993.
Lord Simonds, ed. Halsbury's Laws of England (3rd ed.), vol. 7. London: Butterworths, 1954.
Turnbull, C.M.A History of Modern Singapore, 1819–2005 (3rd ed.). Singapore: NUS Press, 2009.
Winstedt, R.O.Gold Ornaments Dug Up at Fort Canning, Singapore.” Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 6(4) (1928): 14, reprinted in the Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 42(1) (1969): 49–52.
Zaini, Shah Alam M.Metal Finds and Metal-Working at the Parliament House Complex, Singapore. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1997.

A Presence of the Past: The Legal Protection of Singapore's Archaeological Heritage

  • Jack Tsen-Ta Lee (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed