The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are responsible for a substantial percentage of nosocomial infections in the modern hospital and represent the vast majority of isolates whose resistance to antimicrobial agents presents serious therapeutic dilemmas for physicians. Over the years, improved molecular biology techniques have led to detailed information about individual resistance mechanisms in all these pathogens. However, there remains a lack of compelling data on the interplay between resistance mechanisms and between the bacteria themselves. In addition, data on the impact of clinical interventions to decrease the prevalence of resistance are also lacking. The difficulty in identifying novel antimicrobial agents with reliable activity against these pathogens argues for an augmentation of research in the basic and population science of resistance, as well as careful studies to identify optimal strategies for infection control and antimicrobial use.