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Take Two Orthogonals and Call Me in the Morning

  • David Birnbaum (a1)


Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to prevent inflated type I error when hypothesis testing involves comparing more than two groups. If an ANOVA result indicates a statistically significant difference exists somewhere within, the next task is to discover exactly which combination or combinations of those groups account for the significant difference. Among many methods available for that exploration, orthogonal contrasts and relatively simple graphs are noteworthy (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003;24:544-547).


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Applied Epidemiology, 609 Cromar Road, Sidney, British Columbia V8L 5M5, Canada


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2.Kaiser, DL. Applied statistics in infection control: sources of variation in data. Infection Control 1981;2:6366.
3.Veney, JE. Applied statistics in infection control: testing the differences between means. Infection Control 1980;1:264269.
4.Kaiser, D, Veney, JE. Analysis of variance with group interactions. Infection Control 1981;2:333336.
5.Rao, PV. Statistical Research Methods in the Life Sciences. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing; 1998.

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Take Two Orthogonals and Call Me in the Morning

  • David Birnbaum (a1)


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