Leclercq, R, Derlot, E, Duval, J, Courvalin, P. Plasmid-mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium
. N Engl J Med
Uttley, AH, Collins, CH, Naidoo, J, George, RC. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet
Bonten, MJ, Willems, R, Weinstein, RA. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: why are they here, and where do they come from?
Lancet Infect Dis
Martone, WJ. Spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: why did it happen in the United States?
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Goossens, H. Spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: differences between the United States and Europe. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
Bonten, MJ, Hayden, MK, Nathan, C, et al. Epidemiology of colonisation of patients and environment with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet
Pai, CH, Kim, MN. Antimicrobial resistance in enterococci. Yonsei Med J
Kim, SJ, Lee, NY, Song, JH, et al. A study on molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from hospitals in Korea. Korean J Infect Dis
Oh, HS, Kim, EC, Oh, MD, Choe, KW. Outbreak of vancomycin resistant enterococcus in a hematology/oncology unit in a Korean University Hospital, and risk factors related to patients, staff, hospital care and facilities. Scand J Infect Dis
Lee, KW, Kim, MY, Kang, SH, et al. Korean nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in 2000 with special reference to vancomycin resistance in enterococci, and expanded-spectrum cephalosporin and imipenem resistance in gram-negative bacilli. Yonsei Med J
Yoon, SW, Kim, OS, Peck, KR, et al. Efficacy of infection control strategies for vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a tertiary care hospital. Korean J Infect Dis
Shin, DH, Park, JH, Shin, JH, Suh, SP, Ryang, DW, Kim, SJ. A molecular epidemiologic study on vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from clinical specimens over a 5-year Period. Korean J Infect Dis
Lee, WG, Jernigan, JA, Rasheed, JK, Anderson, GJ, Tenover, FC. Possible horizontal transfer of the vanB2 gene among genetically diverse strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a Korean hospital. J Clin Microbiol
Morris, JG Jr, Shay, DK, Hebden, JN, et al. Enterococci resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including vancomycin: establishment of endemicity in a university medical center. Ann Intern Med
Kawalec, M, Gniadkowski, M, Hryniewicz, W. Outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a hospital in Gdask, Poland, due to horizontal transfer of different Tn1546-like transposon variants and clonal spread of several strains. J Clin Microbiol
Simonsen, GS, Haaheim, H, Dahl, KH, et al. Transmission of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant enterococci and vanA resistance elements between chicken and humans at avoparcin-exposed farms. Microb Drug Resist
Song, JY, Hwang, IS, Eom, JS, et al. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains isolated from animals and humans in Korea. Korean J Intern Med
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically. 5th ed. Approved standard M7-A5. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 2000.
Clark, NC, Cooksey, RC, Hill, BC, Swenson, JM, Tenover, FC. Characterization of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci from U.S. hospitals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Arthur, M, Molinas, C, Depardieu, F, Courvalin, P. Characterization of Tn1546, a Tn3-related transposon conferring glycopeptide resistance by synthesis of depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors in Enterococcus faecium BM4147. J Bacteriol
Garner, JS, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG, Horan, TC, Hughes, JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control
1988; 16:128–140. Erratum in: Am J Infect Control 1988; 16:177.
Murray, BE, Singh, KV, Heath, JD, Sharma, BR, Weinstock, GM. Comparison of genomic DNAs of different enterococcal isolates using restriction endonucleases with infrequent recognition sites. J Clin Microbiol
1990; 28:2059–2063. Erratum in: J Clin Microbiol 1991; 29:418.
Tenover, FC, Arbeit, RD, Goering, RV, et al. Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol
Haaheim, H, Dahl, KH, Simonsen, GS, Olsvik, O, Sundsfjord, A. Long PCRs of transposons in the structural analysis of genes encoding acquired glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Biotechniques
Palepou, MF, Adebiyi, AM, Tremlett, CH, Jensen, LB, Woodford, N. Molecular analysis of diverse elements mediating VanA glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. J Antimicrob Chemother
Descheemaeker, P, Ieven, M, Chapelle, S, et al. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci in Belgian renal dialysis units. J Infect Dis
Schouten, MA, Willems, RJ, Kraak, WA, Top, J, Hoogkamp-Korstanje, JA, Voss, A. Molecular analysis of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from patients in Europe shows geographic transposon type clustering. Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Scagnelli, M, Pellizer, G, de Lalla, F, et al. Epidemiological analysis of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a large tertiary-care hospital in Northern Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis
Kim, WJ, Weinstein, RA, Hayden, MK. The changing molecular epidemiology and establishment of endemicity of vancomycin resistance in enterococci at one hospital over a 6-year period. J Infect Dis
Bonten, MJ, Slaughter, S, Hayden, MK, Nathan, C, van Voorhis, J, Weinstein, RA. External sources of vancomycin-resistant enterococci for intensive care units. Crit Care Med
de Lencastre, H, Brown, AE, Chung, M, Armstrong, D, Tomasz, A. Role of transposon Tn5482 in the epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in the pediatric oncology unit of a New York City Hospital. Microb Drug Resist
Yu, HS, Seol, SY, Cho, DT. Diversity of Tn1546-like elements in vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from humans and poultry in Korea. /J Clin Microbiol
Huh, JY, Lee, WG, Lee, K, Shin, WS, Yoo, JH. Distribution of insertion sequences associated with Tn1546-like elements among Enterococcus faecium isolates from patients in Korea. J Clin Microbiol
Bates, J, Jordens, Z, Selkon, JB. Evidence for an animal origin of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet
Torres, C, Tenorio, C, Portillo, A, et al. Intestinal colonization by vanA-or vanB2-containing enterococcal isolates of healthy animals in Spain. Microb Drug Resist
2003; 9(Suppl 1):S47–S52.
Willems, RJ, Top, J, van den Braak, N, et al. Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationships of Tn1546-like elements in enterococci from humans and animals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Willems, RJ, Top, J, van Santen, M, et al. Global spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from distinct nosocomial genetic complex. Emerg Infect Dis
Darini, AL, Palepou, MF, Woodford, N. Effects of the movement of insertion sequences on the structure of VanA glycopeptide resistance elements in Enterococcus faecium
. Antimicrob Agents Chemother