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Improvement of gram-negative susceptibility to fluoroquinolones after implementation of a pre-authorization policy for fluoroquinolone use: A decade-long experience

  • Rachael A. Lee (a1), Morgan C. Scully (a1), Bernard C. Camins (a1), Russell L. Griffin (a2), Danielle F. Kunz (a3), Stephen A. Moser (a4), Craig J. Hoesley (a1), Todd P. McCarty (a1) and Peter G. Pappas (a1)...



Due to concerns over increasing fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance among gram-negative organisms, our stewardship program implemented a preauthorization use policy. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between hospital FQ use and antibiotic resistance.


Retrospective cohort.


Large academic medical center.


We performed a retrospective analysis of FQ susceptibility of hospital isolates for 5 common gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Primary endpoint was the change of FQ susceptibility. A Poisson regression model was used to calculate the rate of change between the preintervention period (1998–2005) and the postimplementation period (2006–2016).


Large rates of decline of FQ susceptibility began in 1998, particularly among P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and E. cloacae. Our FQ restriction policy improved FQ use from 173 days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days to <60 DOT per 1,000 patient days. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility increased for Acinetobacter spp. (rate ratio [RR], 1.038; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.005–1.072), E. cloacae (RR, 1.028; 95% CI, 1.013–1.044), and P. aeruginosa (RR, 1.013; 95% CI, 1.006–1.020). No significant change in susceptibility was detected for K. pneumoniae (RR, 1.002; 95% CI, 0.996–1.008), and the susceptibility for E. coli continued to decline, although the decline was not as steep (RR, 0.981; 95% CI, 0.975–0.987).


A stewardship-driven FQ restriction program stopped overall declining FQ susceptibility rates for all species except E. coli. For 3 species (ie, Acinetobacter spp, E. cloacae, and P. aeruginosa), susceptibility rates improved after implementation, and this improvement has been sustained over a 10-year period.


Corresponding author

Authors for correspondence: Rachael A. Lee, MD, 1900 University Boulevard, THT 216, Birmingham, AL 35294. E-mail: Also, Morgan C. Scully, MD, 1900 University Boulevard, THT 229, Birmingham, AL 35294. E-mail:


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Cite this article: Lee RA, et al. (2018). Improvement of gram-negative susceptibility to fluoroquinolones after implementation of a pre-authorization policy for fluoroquinolone use: A decade-long experience. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology 2018, 39, 1419–1424. doi: 10.1017/ice.2018.245



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Improvement of gram-negative susceptibility to fluoroquinolones after implementation of a pre-authorization policy for fluoroquinolone use: A decade-long experience

  • Rachael A. Lee (a1), Morgan C. Scully (a1), Bernard C. Camins (a1), Russell L. Griffin (a2), Danielle F. Kunz (a3), Stephen A. Moser (a4), Craig J. Hoesley (a1), Todd P. McCarty (a1) and Peter G. Pappas (a1)...


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