1.US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (OTA-H-629), 1995. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995.
2.Whitney, CG, Farley, MM, Hadler, J, et al.Increasing prevalence of mul-tidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States. N EnglJ Med 2000;343:1917–1924.
3.Fridkin, SK, Edwards, JR, Tenover, FC, Gaynes, RP, McGowan, JE Jr.Antimicrobial resistance prevalence rates in hospital antibiograms reflect prevalence rates among pathogens associated with hospital-acquired infections. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:324–330.
4.Fridkin, SK, Hill, HA, Volkova, NV, et al.Temporal changes in prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in 23 US hospitals. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:697–701.
5.Neuhauser, MM, Weinstein, RA, Rydman, R, Danziger, LH, Karam, G, Quinn, JP. Antibiotic resistance among gram-negative bacilli in US intensive care units: implications for fluoroquinolone use. JAMA 2003;289:885–888.
6.Seppala, H, Klaukka, T, Vuopio-Varkila, J, et al.The effect of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics on erythromycin resistance in group A streptococci in Finland. Finnish Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance. N Engi J Med 1997;337:441–446.
7.Huovinen, P, Seppala, H, Kataja, J, Klaukka, T. The relationship between erythromycin consumption and resistance in Finland. Finnish Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance. Ciba Found Symp 1997;207:36–41.
8.Bronzwaer, SL, Cars, O, Buchholz, U, et al.A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:278–282.
9.Monnet, DL, MacKenzie, FM, Lopez-Lozano, JM, et al.Antimicrobial drug use and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Aberdeen, 1996-2000. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:1432–1441.
10.Cohen, ML. Epidemiology of drug resistance: implications for a post-antimicrobialera. Science 1992;257:1050–1055.
11.Forum on Emerging Infections, Institute of Medicine. Antimicrobial Resistance: Issues and Options. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.
12.Kollef, MH, Fraser, VJ. Antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit. Ann Intern Med 2001;134:298–314.
13.Dunagan, WC, Woodward, RS, Medoff, G, et al.Antimicrobial misuse in patients with positive blood cultures. Am J Med 1989;87:253–259.
14.Arbo, MD, Snydman, DR. Influence of blood culture results on antibiotic choice in the treatment of bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:2641–2645.
15.John, JF Jr, Fishman, NO. Programmatic role of the infectious diseases physician in controlling antimicrobial costs in the hospital. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:471–485.
16.Evans, RS, Pestotnik, SL, Classen, DC, et al.A computer-assisted management program for antibiotics and other antiinfective agents. N Engl J Med 1998;338:232–238.
17.DeLisle, S, Perl, TM. Antimicrobial management measures to limit resistance: a process-based conceptual framework. Crit Care Med 2001;29: N121–N127.
18.White, AC Jr, Atmar, RL, Wilson, J, Cate, TR, Stager, CE, Greenberg, SB. Effects of requiring prior authorization for selected antimicrobials: expenditures, susceptibilities, and clinical outcomes. Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:230–239.
19.Fraser, GL, Stogsdill, P, Dickens, JD Jr, Wennberg, DE, Smith, RP Jr, Prato, BS. Antibiotic optimization: an evaluation of patient safety and economic outcomes. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:1689–1694.
20.Solomon, DH, Van, HL, Glynn, RJ, et al.Academic detailing to improve use of broad-spectrum antibiotics at an academic medical center. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1897–1902.
21.Gross, R, Morgan, AS, Kinky, DE, Weiner, M, Gibson, GA, Fishman, NO. Impact of a hospital-based antimicrobial management program on clinical and economic outcomes. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:289–295.
22.Dranitsaris, G, Spizzirri, D, Pitre, M, McGeer, A. A randomized trial to measure the optimal role of the pharmacist in promoting evidence-based antibiotic use in acute care hospitals. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2001;17:171–180.
23.Shlaes, DM, Gerding, DN, John, JF Jr, et al.Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and Infectious Diseases Society of America Joint Committee on the Prevention of Antimicrobial Resistance: guidelines for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:584–599.
24.Goldmann, DA, Weinstein, RA, Wenzel, RP, et al.Strategies to prevent and control the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in hospitals: a challenge to hospital leadership. JAMA 1996;275:234–240.
25.Bantar, C, Sartori, B, Vesco, E, et al.A hospital-wide intervention program to optimize the quality of antibiotic use: impact on prescribing practice, antibiotic consumption, cost savings, and bacterial resistance. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:180–186.
26.Apisarnthanarak, A, Danchaivijitr, S, Khawcharoenporn, T, et al.Effectiveness of education and an antibiotic-control program in a tertiary care hospital in Thailand. Clin Infect Dis 2006;42:768–775.
27.World Health Organization. ATC classification index with DDDs. Oslo, Norway: World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Drug Statistics Methodology, 2001.