Effects of ultra high speed (UHS) floor burnishing upon air quality in health care facilities were evaluated. A 2,000-rpm burnisher can disseminate high-velocity (190 km/hr) dust and microbial particles. A UHS burnisher used with either inadequate or no air restraint produced significant increases (P<0.05) in the levels of airborne dust particles and microorganisms. A UHS burnisher equipped with an air restraint assembly specifically designed for use in health care facilities produced no significant increase (P>0.05) in the levels of airborne dust particles or microorganisms when compared to ambient air levels. The types and distribution of airborne microorganisms isolated from microbial air samples were not unusual nor were they directly influenced by the floor burnishing processes. Furthermore, the UHS floor burnishing process produced a significant reduction (P<0.05 ) in microbial floor contaminants (96%). When the use of UHS floor burnishing is contemplated for productivity improvement and esthetic enhancement, the possible adverse effects on air quality should also be considered.