Skip to main content Accessibility help

Correlation of Hand Hygiene Compliance Measured by Direct Observation with Estimates Obtained from Product Usage

  • Westyn Branch-Elliman (a1) (a2) (a3), Graham M. Snyder (a2) (a4) (a5), Aleah D. King (a4), Linda M. Baldini (a4), Kaitlyn M. Dooley (a5), David S. Yassa (a2) (a6) and Sharon B. Wright (a2) (a4) (a6)...


Improving compliance with hand hygiene is a cornerstone of infection prevention. However, data regarding practical methods for monitoring compliance are limited. We found that product use metrics have a moderate correlation with direct observation in ward settings and limited correlation in intensive care units.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:746–749


Corresponding author

Address correspondence to Westyn Branch-Elliman, VA Boston Healthcare System, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, MA, 02132 (


Hide All

PREVIOUS PRESENTATION. Portions of these data were presented at IDWeek 2014 on October 11, 2014, in Philadelphia, PA.



Hide All
1. Boyce, JM, Pittet, D, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee/Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America Hand Hygiene Task Force. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:S3S40.
2. Srigley, JA, Furness, CD, Baker, GR, Gardam, M. Quantification of the Hawthorne effect in hand hygiene compliance monitoring using an electronic monitoring system: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Qual Saf 2014;23:974980.
3. Srigley, JA, Lightfoot, D, Fernie, G, Gardam, M, Muller, MP. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: protocol for a systematic review. Syst Rev 2013;2:101.
4. Boyce, JM. Hand hygiene compliance monitoring: current perspectives from the USA. J Hosp Infect 2008;70(Suppl 1):27.
5. Marra, AR, Moura, DF Jr, Paes, AT, dos Santos, OF, Edmond, MB. Measuring rates of hand hygiene adherence in the intensive care setting: a comparative study of direct observation, product usage, and electronic counting devices. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:796801.
6. McGuckin, M, Waterman, R, Govednik, J. Hand hygiene compliance rates in the United States—a one-year multicenter collaboration using product/volume usage measurement and feedback. Am J Med Qual 2009;24:205213.
7. Morgan, DJ, Pineles, L, Shardell, M, et al. Automated hand hygiene count devices may better measure compliance than human observation. Am J Infect Control 2012;40:955959.
8. Filho, MA, Marra, AR, Magnus, TP, et al. Comparison of human and electronic observation for the measurement of compliance with hand hygiene. Am J Infect Control 2014;42:11881192.
9. Hagel, S, Reischke, J, Kesselmeier, M, et al. Quantifying the Hawthorne effect in hand hygiene compliance through comparing direct observation with automated hand hygiene monitoring. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36:957962.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed