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A Comprehensive Water Management Program for Multicampus Healthcare Facilities

  • Dale A. Krageschmidt (a1), Allen F. Kubly (a1), Mark S. Browning (a1), Alan J. Wright (a1), Jon D. Lonneman (a1), Martin J. Detmer (a2) and William F. McCoy (a2)...



Develop and implement an effective program for hazard analysis and control of waterborne pathogens at a multicampus hospital with clinics.


A longitudinal study. Several-year study including analysis of results from monitoring and tests of 26 building water systems.


Outpatient and inpatient healthcare facilities network.


The hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) process was used to develop a water management program (WMP) for the hospital campuses. The HACCP method systematically addressed 3 questions: (1) What are the potential waterborne hazards in the building water systems of these facilities? (2) How are the hazards being controlled? (3) How do we know that the hazards have been controlled? Microbiological and chemical tests of building water samples were used to validate the performance of the WMP; disease surveillance data further validated effective hazard control.


Hazard analysis showed that waterborne pathogens were generally in good control and that the water quality was good in all facilities. The hospital network has had several legionellosis cases that were identified as presumptive hospital acquired, but none was confirmed or substantiated by water testing in follow-up investigations. Building water system studies unrelated to these cases showed that pressure tanks and electronic automatic faucets required additional hazard control.


Application of the HACCP process for long-term building water systems management was practical and effective. The need for critical control point management of temperature, flow, and oxidant (chlorine) residual concentration was emphasized. The process resulted in discovery of water system components requiring additional hazard control.


Corresponding author

1701 Quincy Avenue, Suite 32, Naperville, IL 60540 (


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