1.Podschun, R, Ullmann, U. Klebsiella spp. as nosocomial pathogens: epidemiology, taxonomy, typing methods, and pathogenicity factors. Clin Microbiol Rev 1998;11:589–603.
2.Patterson, JE, Hardin, TC, Kelly, CA, Garcia, RC, Jorgensen, JH. Association of antibiotic utilization measures and control of multiple-drug resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;2:455–458.
3.Silva, J, Gatica, R, Aguilar, C, et al. Outbreak of infection with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Mexican hospital. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39:3193–3196.
4.Sirot, J. Detection of extended-spectrum plasmid-mediated β-lactamases by disk diffusion. Clin Microbiol Infect 1996;2(suppl 1):35–39.
5.Gniadkowski, M, Hryniewicz, W. Outbreak of ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a pediatric hospital in Warsaw, Poland: clonal spread of the TEM-47 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strain and transfer of a plasmid carrying the SHV-5-like ESBL-encoding gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42:3079–3085.
6.Siu, LK, Lu, P-L, Hsueh, P-R, et al. Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in a pediatric oncology ward: clinical features and identification of different plasmids carrying both SHV-5 and TEM-1 genes. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:4020–4027.
7.Peña, C, Pujol, M, Ardanuy, C, et al. Epidemiology and successful control of a large outbreak due to Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum K-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42:53–58.
8.Tenover, FC, Arbeit, RD, Goering, RV, et al. Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:2233–2239.
9.Bingen, E. Applications of molecular methods to epidemiologic investigations of nosocomial infections in a pediatric hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1994;15:488–493.
10.Tenover, FC, Arbeit, RD, Goering, RV. How to select and interpret molecular strain typing methods for epidemiological studies of bacterial infections: a review for healthcare epidemiologists. Molecular Typing Working Group of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1997;18:426–439.
11.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 2001. Approved standard M2-A7.
12.Biendo, M, Laurans, G, Lefebvre, JF, Daoudi, F, Eb, F. Epidemiological study of an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak by using a combination of antibiotyping and ribotyping. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:2170–2175.
13.Jarlier, V, Nicolas, MH, Fournier, G, Philippon, A. Extended broad-spectrum β-lactamases conferring transferable resistance to newer β-lactam agents in Enterobacteriaceae: hospital prevalence and susceptibility patterns. Rev Infect Dis 1988;10:867–878.
14.Grundmann, HJ, Towner, KJ, Dijkshoorn, L, et al. Multicenter study using standardized protocols and reagents for evaluation of reproducibility of PCR-based fingerprinting of Acinetobacter spp. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35:3071–3077.
15.Tankovic, J, Legrand, R, Gatines, GD, Chmineau, V, Brun-Buisson, C, Davul, J. Characterization of a hospital outbreak of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by phenotyping and genotyping typing methods. J Clin Microbiol 1994;32:2677–2681.
16.Parasakthi, N, Vadivelu, J, Ariffin, H, Iyer, L, Palasubramaniam, S, Arasu, A. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of nosocomially transmitted multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Int J Infect Dis 2000;4:123–128.
17.Petros, AJ, O'Connell, M, Roberts, C, Wade, P, van Saene, HKF. Systemic antibiotics fail to clear multidrug-resistant Klebsiella from a pediatric ICU. Chest 2001;119:862–866.
18.Reiss, I, Borkhardt, A, Füssle, R, Sziegoleit, A, Gortner, L. Disinfectant contaminated with Klebsiella oxytoca source of sepsis in babies. Lancet 2000;22:310.
19.French, GL, Shannon, KP, Simmons, N. Hospital outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations by hyperproduction of SHV-5 beta-lactamase. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:358–363.
20.Ariffin, H, Navaratnam, P, Mohamed, M, et al. Ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection in children with febrile neutropenia. Int J Infect Dis 2000;4:21–25.
21.Livermore, DL. β lactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev 1995;8:557–584.
22.Bush, K, Jacoby, GA, Medeiros, AA. A functional classification for 4-lactamases and its correlation with molecular structures. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993;39:1211–1233.
23.Durmaz, R, Durmaz, B, Koroglu, M, Tekerekoglu, MS. Detection and typing of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae in a medical center in Turkey. Microb Drug Resist 2001;7:171–175.
24.Tunger, A, Hilmioglu, S, Dibek, MA, et al. Presence of extended spectrum beta lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains isolated as agents of nosocomial infection. Turkish Journal of Infections 1998;12:165–168.
25.Evrensel, N, Koc, NA, Sumerkan, B. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Gram-negative bacilli isolated from intensive-care units. J Infect Dis Clin Microbiol 1997;2:105–108.
26.Komatsu, M, Ikeda, N, Aihara, M, et al. Hospital outbreak of MEN-1-derived extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Infect Chemother 2001;7:94–101.
27.Eisen, D, Russell, EG, Tymms, M, Roper, EJ, Grayson, ML, Turnidge, J. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and plasmid analyses used in investigation of an outbreak of multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:713–717.