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Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 4 Outbreak in a Home for the Aged: Report and Review of Recent Outbreaks

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2015

Sheldon Gleich*
Division of Infectious Diseases, St John's Episcopal Hospital, Far Rockaway, New York
Yosef Morad
Division of Infectious Diseases, St John's Episcopal Hospital, Far Rockaway, New York
Ramon Echague
Department of Internal Medicine, St John's Episcopal Hospital, Far Rockaway, New York
James R. Miller
Parasitic Disease Surveillance Unit, New York City Department of Health, New York, New York
John Kornblum
Molecular Typing Laboratory, New York City Department of Health, New York, New York
Jacquelyn S. Sampson
Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Jay C. Butler
Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Division of Infectious Diseases, St John's Episcopal Hospital, 327 Beach 19th St, Far Rockaway, NY 11691



To describe a pneumonia outbreak caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae among residents of a home for the aged and to review contemporary pneumococcal outbreaks.


Epidemiological investigation.


S pneumoniae isolates were serotyped and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Paired sera were tested for antibodies to pneumococcal surface adhesin A protein (PsaA, a 37-kDa cell-wall protein). Pneumococcal outbreaks reported in the last decade in English were reviewed.


Pneumonia developed in 18 of 200 residents. In 11 (61%), a pneumococcal etiology was demonstrated. S pneumoniae, serotype 4, was isolated from the blood cultures of 3 patients; all isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Pneumococcal involvement was established in 2 by sputum culture and latex agglutination of parapneumonic fluid and in 6 others by a twofold rise in optical density of serum antibody reactive to PsaA. Pneumococcal immunization had not previously been received by any patient; mortality was 22%. No additional cases were noted following administration of pneumococcal vaccine and antibiotic prophylaxis with penicillin or erythromycin. Twenty-six outbreaks of invasive pneumococcal disease since 1990 were reviewed. Twelve occurred in the United States, and serotypes 23F, 14, and 4 accounted for 8 (67%) of 12 outbreaks. All confirmed serotypes in US outbreaks are included in the 23-valent vaccine. More than one half of pneumococcal outbreaks worldwide involved elderly persons in hospitals or long-term-care facilities.


A pneumococcal pneumonia outbreak occurred among unvaccinated residents of a residential facility for the aged. Institutionalized elderly persons are at risk of outbreaks of pneumococcal disease and should be vaccinated.

Original Articles
Copyright © The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America 2000

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