Skip to main content Accessibility help

Personality assessment for work: Legal, I-O, and clinical perspective

  • Stephan Dilchert (a1), Deniz S. Ones (a2) and Robert F. Krueger (a2)


  • An abstract is not available for this content so a preview has been provided below. Please use the Get access link above for information on how to access this content.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email:


Hide All

The third author of this commentary was involved in the DSM-5 development process as a member of the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group and as the workgroup’s text coordinator. His service on the Work Group ended in December 2012; this commentary reflects only the positions and opinions of its three authors as independent scholars.



Hide All
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. doi: 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Asplund, J., Lopez, S. J., Hodges, T., & Harter, J. (2007). The Clifton StrengthsFinder® 2.0 technical report. Princeton, NJ: Gallup Organization.
Barnes v. Cochran, 130 F.3d 443 (Court of Appeals 1997).
Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Judge, T. A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: What do we know and where do we go next? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9(1–2), 930. doi: 10.1111/1468-2389.00160
Butcher, J. N., Front, C. M., & Ones, D. S. (2018). Assessing psychopathology in high-risk occupations. In Butcher, J. N. (Ed.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders (Vol. 1, pp. 245272). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/0000064-011
Carrigan, M. (2007). Pre-employment testing—prediction of employee success and legal issues: A revisitation of Griggs v. Duke Power. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 5(8), 3544. doi: 10.19030/jber.v5i8.2567
Carter, N. T., Dalal, D. K., Boyce, A. S., O’Connell, M. S., Kung, M.-C., & Delgado, K. M. (2014). Uncovering curvilinear relationships between conscientiousness and job performance: How theoretically appropriate measurement makes an empirical difference. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(4), 564586. doi: 10.1037/a0034688
DeYoung, C. G., & Krueger, R. F. (2018). A cybernetic theory of psychopathology. Psychological Inquiry, 29(3), 117138.
Dilchert, S., Ones, D. S., & Krueger, R. F. (2014). Maladaptive personality constructs, measures, and work behaviors: Maladaptive personality constructs, measures, work behaviors. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7(1), 98110. doi: 10.1111/iops.12115
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2000). EEOC enforcement guidance on the Americans with Disabilities Act and psychiatric disabilities: Notice concerning the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008. Retrieved from
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2008). Enforcement guidance: Disability-related inquiries and medical examinations of employees under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Retrieved from
Gaddis, B. H., & Foster, J. L. (2015). Meta-analysis of dark side personality characteristics and critical work behaviors among leaders across the globe: Findings and implications for leadership development and executive coaching. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 64(1), 2554. doi: 10.1111/apps.12017
Hogan, J., & Holland, B. (2003). Using theory to evaluate personality and job-performance relations: A socioanalytic perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 100112. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.100
Karraker v. Rent-A-Center, Inc., 411 F.3d 831 (7th Cir. 2005).
Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Watson, D., Achenbach, T. M., Althoff, R. R., Bagby, R. M., … Zimmerman, M. (2017). The hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP): A dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126(4), 454477. doi: 10.1037/abn0000258
Le, H., Oh, I.-S., Robbins, S. B., Ilies, R., Holland, E., & Westrick, P. (2011). Too much of a good thing: Curvilinear relationships between personality traits and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 113133.
Markon, K. E., Krueger, R. F., & Watson, D. (2005). Delineating the structure of normal and abnormal personality: An integrative hierarchical approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(1), 139157. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.1.139
McKenna v. Fargo , No. 451 F. Supp. 1355 (1978).
Melson-Silimon, A., Harris, A. M., Shoenfelt, E. L., Miller, J. D., & Carter, N. T. (2019). Personality testing and the Americans with Disabilities Act: Cause for concern as normal and abnormal personality models are integrated. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 12(2), 119132.
Nickel, L. B., Roberts, B. W., & Chernyshenko, O. S. (2019). No evidence of a curvilinear relation between conscientiousness and relationship, work, and health outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 116(2):296312. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000176
O’Boyle, Jr. , E. H., Forsyth, D. R., Banks, G. C., & McDaniel, M. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of the dark triad and work behavior: A social exchange perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 557579. doi: 10.1037/a0025679
Ones, D. S., & Dilchert, S., Viswesvaran, C., & Judge, T. A. (2007). In support of personality assessment in organizational settings. Personnel Psychology, 60(4), 9951027.
Ones, D. S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F. L. (1993). Comprehensive meta-analysis of integrity test validities: Findings and implications for personnel selection and theories of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 679703. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.679
Ones, D. S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F. L. (2012). Integrity tests predict counterproductive work behaviors and job performance well: A comment on Van Iddekinge et al. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 537542.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Robie, C., & Ryan, A. M. (1999). Effects of nonlinearity and heteroscedasticity on the validity of conscientiousness in predicting overall job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 7(3), 157169.
Shaffer, D. J., & Schmidt, R. A. (1999). Personality testing in employment. Retrieved from
Soroka v. Dayton Hudson Corporation, 18 Cal. App. 4th 1200 (1991).
Thompson v. Borg-Warner Protective Servs. Corp., No. C-94-4015 MHP, 1996 W.L. 162990 (1996).
Tyrer, P., Mulder, R., Kim, Y.-R., & Crawford, M. J. (2019). The development of the ICD-11 classification of personality disorders: An amalgam of science, pragmatism and politics. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 15, 481502.
Walmsley, P. T. (2013). Investigating the presence of nonlinear personality–job performance relationships (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Walmsley, P. T., Sackett, P. R., & Nichols, S. B. (2018). A large sample investigation of the presence of nonlinear personality-job performance relationships. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 26(2–4), 145163.
World Health Organization. (2018). ICD-11 beta draft. Retrieved from
Zachar, P., Krueger, R. F., & Kendler, K. S. (2016). Personality disorder in DSM-5: An oral history. Psychological Medicine, 46(01), 110. doi: 10.1017/S0033291715001543

Personality assessment for work: Legal, I-O, and clinical perspective

  • Stephan Dilchert (a1), Deniz S. Ones (a2) and Robert F. Krueger (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed