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Helium Production in the Different Cosmological Models*

  • A. G. Doroshkevich, I. D. Novikov, R. A. Sunyaev and Ya. B. Zeldovich

Extract

The aim of the present report is to emphasize the role of the helium problem as the key one for different aspects of cosmological speculations. This is not surprising, because the processes which produce the helium and other elements in primordial matter take place during the first stages of the cosmological expansion of the Universe.

The theory gives three critical values of the He4 abundance in pre-stellar matter, depending on assumptions about the behaviour of the Universe near the singularity. The three critical values are:

(1) practically no He4 at all;

(2) about 25% of He4 by mass;

(3) practically entirely He4.

Although intermediate values of He4 are in principle possible, the cosmological models permitting such values are highly improbable. It is obvious that the helium abundance is less than 100%, and that even rough estimates of whether the stellar matter consists almost entirely of hydrogen, or if it has a significant part of He4, are of tremendous importance. The much-more-difficult determination of traces of primeval He3, D, Li6, would be of great help in making definite cosmological conclusions.

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Copyright

Footnotes

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*

The references of the first works and some of modern reviews are given at the end of the report. We do not give references in the text as a rule.

Footnotes

References

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Helium Production in Isotropic Cosmology

Alpher, R. A., Gamow, G., and Herman, R.: 1967, Proc. Roy. Astron. Soc. 58, 2179.
Fermi, E., Turkevich, A.: Unpublished work.
Fowler, W. A.: June 1970, Preprint.
Greenstein, G.: 1969, Nature 223, 939.
Hayashi, C..: 1950, Progr. Theoret. Phys. Japan 5, 224.
Peebles, P.: 1966, Astrophys. J. 146, 552.
Shvartsman, V. F.: 1969, Zh. E. T. E, Pis. Red. (USSR) 9, 315; (Soviet. Phys. JETP Letters 9, 184).
Tayler, R.: 1968, Nature 217, 433.
Wagoner, R. V., Fowler, W. A., and Hoyle, F.: 1967, Astrophys. J. 148, 3.
Zeldovich, Ya. B. and Sunyaev, R. A.: 1969, Comm. Astron. Space Sci. 1, 159.
Zeldovich, Ya. B. and Novikov, I. D.: 1967, Relativistic Astrophysics, Moscow.

Helium Production in Anisotropic Cosmology

Doroshkevich, A. G., Zeldovich, Ya. B., and Novikov, I. D.: 1967, JETP (USSR) 53, 644; 1969, Astrophysics (USSR) 5, 539.
Hawking, S. W. and Tayler, J.: 1966, Nature 209, 1278.
Misner, C. W.: 1968, Astrophys. J. 158, 431.
Novikov, I. D.: 1970, Preprint, IAM 18.
Stewart, J. M.: 1968, Astron. Letters 2, 133; 1968, Preprint, Cambridge.
Thorne, W. S.: 1967, Astrophys. J. 148, 51.

Helium in the Dicke Cosmology

Dicke, R. H.: 1968, Astrophys. J. 152, 1.

Helium Observations

Burbidge, G. R.: 1969, Comm. Astron. Space. Phys. 1, 101.
Castellani, V., Giannone, P., and Rensini, A.: 1969, Nature 222, 151.
Fowler, W. A., Burbidge, E. M., Burbidge, G. R., and Hoyle, F.: 1969, Astrophys. J. 142, 423.
Kurt, V. G. and Sunyaev, R. A.: 1967, Kosmich. Issled. (USSR) 5, 573.
Novikov, I. D. and Sunyaev, R. A.: 1967, Astron. J. (USSR) 44, 320.
Rees, M. J., Sciama, D. W., and Stobbs, S. H.: 1968, Astrophys. Letters 2(6), 243.
Sargent, W.L.W. and Searle, L.: 1968, Astrophys. J. 152, 443.
Zeldovich, Ya. B., Novikov, I. D., and Sunyaev, R. A.: 1966, Astron. Cirk. 37.

Helium-3 Observations

Goldwire, H. C. and Goss, W. M.: 1967, Astrophys. J. 149, 15.
Seling, T. V. and Heiles, C.: 1969, Astrophys. J. 155, LI63.
Sunyaev, R. A.: 1966, Soviet Astron.-A.J. 10, 989.

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