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Exclusionary vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing Contemporary Europe and Latin America

  • Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser

Although there is a lively academic debate about contemporary populism in Europe and Latin America, almost no cross-regional research exists on this topic. This article aims to fill this gap by showing that a minimal and ideological definition of populism permits us to analyse current expressions of populism in both regions. Moreover, based on a comparison of four prototypical cases (FN/Le Pen and FPÖ/Haider in Europe and PSUV/Chávez and MAS/Morales in Latin America), we show that it is possible to identify two regional subtypes of populism: exclusionary populism in Europe and inclusionary populism in Latin America.

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Cas Mudde is Assistant Professor in the Department of International Affairs of the University of Georgia. Contact email: Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser is Marie Curie Research Fellow in the Department of Politics of the University of Sussex. Contact email:

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