Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Terrorist Attacks Against the Natural Environment: A Phantom or a Real Danger

  • Martin Heger

Extract

During the last few decades scholars have discussed various different scenarios of modern terrorism. One of these scenarios –– Islamic motivated terrorism –– came to light with the attacks on the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001. Another scenario discussed involves terrorist attacks against the natural environment as part of so-called “eco-terrorism”. These attacks are either carried out using traditional weapons or the often-discussed “bioterrorism”, where biological weapons are manufactured and misused by terrorists.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Terrorist Attacks Against the Natural Environment: A Phantom or a Real Danger
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Terrorist Attacks Against the Natural Environment: A Phantom or a Real Danger
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Terrorist Attacks Against the Natural Environment: A Phantom or a Real Danger
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All

1 For details see Mark A. Zöller, Terrorismusstrafrecht: Ein Handbuch (Terrorist Criminal Law: A Guide) 45-83 (2009). To the term “terrorism” in criminal law in general, see Maunuel Cancio Meliá, Zum strafrechtlichen Begriff des Terrorismus (The criminal concept of terrorism), 159 Goldtammer's Archiv für Strafrecht 1-13 (2012).

2 For the history of biological weapons, see Friedrich Hansen, Biologische Kriegsführung im Dritten Reich (Biological warfare in the Third Reich, 1993) – for a list of modern biological weapons, see Waffenrecht, Teil A, Abschnitt II: biologische Waffen (Weapons Act, Part A, Section II: biological weapons), in Otto Lagodny, Ralph Alt, Karsten Altenhain, Georg Freund & Bernd Heinrich, Münchener Kommentar zum Strafgesetzbuch (Munich Commentary on the Criminal Code, 5th ed., 2007).

3 See Clive Walker, Terrorism and the Law (2011), at margin number 1.121.

4 For details, see Ian Reader, Religious Violence in Contemporary Japan (2000).

5 See Dederer, Hans-Georg, Kernkraftwerke im Visier des Terrorismus (Nuclear power plants in sight of terrorism), Die Öffentliche Verwaltung 621-632 (2005).

6 Id.

7 For details, see Karl Lackner & Kristian Kühl, Strafgesetzbuch: Kommentar (Penal Code: Commentary, 27th ed., 2011), preliminaries to sections 324-330 (d).

8 Michael Bohlander, The German Criminal Code: A Modern English Translation (2008), s. 330(2).

9 Id. at s. 330(a).

10 Id. at s. 305(1).

11 For details see Hagen Wolff, § 395 margin number 8, in Leipziger Kommentar zum StGB (Verlag De Gruyter ed., 12th ed., 2008).

12 Id. at s. 306 (1).

13 Id. at s. 306 (b) (1).

14 Id. at s. 306 (c).

15 See Walker, supra note 3, at margin number 1.111: “As regards method, the core is violence, and terrorism involves types of violence which cause terror, often amplified through devices such as media threats. Violence is usually conceived as perpetrating harm to human beings.”

16 For details, see Paul Frederick Cecil, Herbicidal Warfare: Ranch Hand Project in Vietnam (1986); Philip Jones Griffith, Agent Orange: Collateral Damage in Vietnam (2004).

17 For further details, see Matthias Reichart, Umweltschutz durch völkerrechtliches Strafrecht (Protection of the environment by international criminal law, 1999). For Germany, see Section 11 (Para. 3) Völkerstrafgesetzbuch (Code of Crimes against International Law): “Whoever in connection with an international armed conflict carries out an attack by military means and definitely anticipates that the attack will cause widespread, long-term and sever damage to the natural environment on a scale out of proportion to the concrete and direct overall military advantage anticipated shall be punished with imprisonment for not less than three years” (Translation by Brian Duffet, Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Strafrecht).

18 For further details, see Christian Tomuschat, Schädigung der Umwelt als Verbrechen nach Völkerstrafrecht (Environmental destruction as crimes under international criminal law), in Völkerrecht und deutsches Recht 100, 104 (Hans-Wolfgang Arndt, Franz-Ludwig Knemeyer, Dieter Kugelmann, Werner Meng & Michael Schweitzer eds., 2001); Martin Heger, Die Europäisierung des deutschen Umweltstrafrechts (The Europeanization of the German environmental criminal law, 2009), 27-33; Gerhard Werle, Principles of International Criminal Law (2nd ed., 2009), para. 1201-1210.

19 Walker, supra note 3, at margin number 1.110.

20 See Dederer, supra note 5, at 621-632.

21 See for example, Hans-Georg Dederer, Krieg gegen den Terror, 59 Juristenzeitung 421, 424, 429 (2004).

22 Gerhard Werle, Principles of International Criminal Law (2nd ed., 2009), at margin number 308.

23 For further details, see Ines Petersen, Die Strafbarkeit des Einsatzes von biologischen, chemischen und nuklearen Waffen als Kriegsverbrechen nach dem IStGH-Statut (The criminalization of the use of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons as a war crime under the Rome Statute, 2009).

24 Michael Kloepfer & Hans-Peter Vierhaus, Umweltstrafrecht (The environmental criminal law, 2nd ed., 2002), para. 170; Matthias Reichart, supra note 17.

25 Id.

26 See Werle, supra note 23, at margin number 929.

27 Id.

28 Id. at para. 950.

29 See Otfried Höffe, Eine Konversion der kritischen Theorie? Zu Habermas's Rechts- und Staatstheorie (A conversion of critical theory? On Habermas's legal and political theory), 12 Rechtshistorisches Journal 70, 77 (1993); Otfried Höffe, Gibt es ein interkulturelles Strafrecht?: Ein philosophischer Versuch (Is there a cross-cultural criminal law? a philosophical attempt, 1999).

30 See Detlef Krauß, Gift im Strafrecht (Poison in Criminal Law), President of Humboldt University in Berlin 11 (1999).

31 Bohlander, supra note 8, at s. 314 (1).

32 Id. at s. 308 (2).

33 Id. at s. 308 (3).

34 See Wolff, supra, note 11 at § 314, margin number 1. Only 10 such cases were recorded as of 2007.

* Professor at Humboldt University, Berlin. I want to thank my student researchers Ms. Sajanee Arzner and Ms. Liisa-Julia Voß. Email:

Terrorist Attacks Against the Natural Environment: A Phantom or a Real Danger

  • Martin Heger

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed