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Embeddedness through Networks: A Critical Appraisal of the Network Concept in the Oeuvre of Karl-Heinz Ladeur

  • Poul F. Kjaer

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The concept of “network” has become the most central concept within the work of Karl-Heinz Ladeur (KHL). It is an omnibus concept which he uses to extrapolate insights at all levels: It is used to provide a general framework at the level of Gesellschaftstheorie (social theory) in the sense that it provides insights into the general structure of society and thereby into the context within which legal processes unfold. At the level of organizational theory it provides a basis for understanding the transformation of organizational structures as it unfolds through the breakdown of hierarchy and the boundaries between the private and the public, just as the network concept plays an important role in its attempt to formulate a legal theory which is adequate for a society which, according to KHL, has become postmodern.

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References

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1 Habermas is described as the “Theorist of Double Standards” (my translation). See Karl-Heinz Ladeur, Der Staat gegen die Gesellschaft. Zur Verteidigung der Rationalität der Privatsrechtsgesellschaft 311 (2006); see also Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, Discursive Ethics as Constitutional Theory. Neglecting the Creative Role of Economic Liberties?, 13 Ratio Juris, 95 (2000); for a critique of Habermas on the basis of the example of environmental law see Karl-Heinz Ladeur, Das Umwelt der Wissensgesellschaft: Von der Gefahrenabwehr zum Risikomanagement 37 (1995).

2 Habermas, Jürgen, Die Moderne, ein unvollendetes Projekt. Philosophisch-politische Aufsätze 1977–1990 (1990).

3 Habermas, Jürgen, Why Europe Needs A Constitution, 11 New Left-Review 17 (2001).

4 Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, Towards a Legal Theory of Supranationality – The Viability of the Network Concept, 3 European Law Journal 35 (1997).

5 Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, “Deliberative Demokratie” und “Dritter Weg” – eine neue Sackgasse? Transformation des “alten “ Sozialstaats in den “aktivierende” Staat?, 41 Der Staat 3 (2002). More generally see also Karl-Heinz Ladeur, Postmoderne Rechtstheorie – Selbstreferenz – Selbstorganisation – Prozeduralisierung (1995); and Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, Negative Freiheitsrechte und gesellschaftliche Selbstorganisation. Zur Erzeugung von Sozialkapital durch gesellschaftliche Institutionen (2000).

6 Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, Der Staat gegen die Gesellschaft. Zur Verteidigung der Rationalität der Privatsrechtsgesellschaft 296 (2006).

7 Evans, Peter B., Dietrich Reuschemeyer, Theda Skocpol (Eds.), Bringing the State Back In (1985).

8 Hegel, Georg W. F., Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts. Oder Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im Grundrisse ([1821] 1976).

9 Weber, Eugen, Peasants Into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1880–1914 (1976).

10 For the Italian “Mezzogiorno” see Niklas Luhmann, Kausalität im Süden, Soziale Systeme, 1 Zeitschrift für Soziologische Theorie 7 (1995).

11 Stichweh, Rudolf, Die Weltgesellschaft: Soziologische Analysen (2000).

12 Chile might be the only exception to the persistent tendency of weak states in Latin America. See also Maximiliano Figuroa/Manuel Vicuña (Cor.), El Chile del Bicentenario (2008).

13 Joerges, Christian, Introduction to the Special Issue: Confronting Memories: European “Bitter Experiences” and the Constitutionalization Process, 6, 2 German Law Journal (2005).

14 Charles Tilly, War Making and State Making as Organized Crime, in Bringing the State Back In, 169 – 191 (Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Reuschemeyer & Theda Skocpol eds., 1985).

15 Norbert Elias, Über den Prozeß der Zivilisation, Soziogenetische und psychogenetische Untersuchungen, Band 2; Wandlungen der Gesellschaft. Entwurf zu einer Theorie der Zivilisation (1976)

16 Foucault, Michel, Il faut défendre la société. Cours au Collège de France 1975–1976 (1994).

17 Beck, Ulrich, Die Feindlose Demokratie (1995).

18 Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, Der Staat gegen die Gesellschaft. Zur Verteidigung der Rationalität der Privatsrechtsgesellschaft (2006).

19 For example, see Fischer-Lescano, Andreas & Teubner, Gunther, Regime-Kollisionen. Zur Fragmentierung des globalen Rechts (2006).

20 For example, see Callies, Gralf-Peter, Transnationales Handelsvertragsrecht: Private Ordnung und staatlicher Rahmen, in Verrechtlichgung – Baustein für Global Governance?, 160 (Michael Zürn & Bernhard Zangl eds., 2004).

21 See Claire Methven O'Brien, Reframing RECON: Perspectives on Transnationalisation and Post-national Democracy from Labor Law, in Transnational Standards of Social Protection. Contrasting European and International Governance, ARENA Report, No. 5, 97 (Christian Joerges & Poul F. Kjaer eds., 2008).

22 See Rödel, Florian, Constitutional integration of Labour Constitutions, in Law, Democracy and Solidarity in a Post-national Union. The Unsettled political order of Europe, 152 (Erik Oddvar Eriksen, Christian Joerges & Florian Rödl eds., 2008).

23 Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, Towards a Legal Theory of Supranationality – the Viability of the Network Concept, 3 European Law Journal, 33, 47 (1997).

24 Id., 46.

25 For an overview of the evolution of networks and their Funktionswandel see; Kjaer, Poul F., Post-Hegelian Networks in Networks: Legal Issues of Multilateral Cooperation (Marc Amstutz & Gunther Teubner eds., 2008).

26 Infra, note 23 at 35.

27 For a number of instructive examples of network regulation within the areas of information technology law and environmental law see Karl-Heinz Ladeur, Regulierte Selbstregulierung als Steuerungskonzept des Gewährleistungsstaates, 4 Die Verwaltung, Beiheft 59 (2001).

28 Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, The Changing Role of the Private in Public Governance – The Erosion of Hierarchy and the Rise of a New Administrative Law of Cooperation. A Comparative Approach, 9 EUI Working Papers Law, 1–36 (2002).

29 Id., 32.

30 E.g. Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, Der Staat gegen die Gesellschaft. Zur Verteidigung der Rationalität der Privatsrechtsgesellschaft 296 (2006).

31 For example see Id., 5.

32 See especially Ladeur, Karl-Heinz, Der Staat gegen die Gesellschaft. Zur Verteidigung der Rationalität der Privatsrechtsgesellschaft 296 (2006).

33 Bücker, Andreas & Schlacke, Sabine, Die Entstehung einer politischen Verwaltung durch EG-Ausschüsse – Rechtstatsachen und Rechtsentwicklungen in Das Ausschußwesen der Europäischen Union. Die Praxis der Risikoregulierung im Binnenmarkt und ihre rechtliche Verfassung, 161 (Josef Falke & Christian Joerges eds., 2000).

34 Stichweh, Rudolf, Transfer in Sozialsystemen: Theoretische Überlegungen, available at http://www.unilu.ch/files/6stwtransfer.pdf, last accessed 14 February 2009.

35 Kjaer, Poul F., De-Formalization or Formalization through Governance? in Conflict of Laws and Laws of Conflict in Europe and Beyond – Patterns of Supranational and Transnational Juridification, ARENA Report Series (Rainer Nickel ed., 2009, forthcoming).

36 Kjaer, Poul F., Rationality within Reach? On Functional Differentiation as the Structural Condition of Legitimacy in European Chemicals Regulation, 18 European University Institute Working Paper, 1–26(2007).

37 Borch, Christian, Systemic Power. Luhmann, Foucault and Analytics of Power, 48 Acta Sociologica 155 (2005).

38 Luhmann, Niklas, Politik der Gesellschaft 88, 97 (2000).

39 Eckard Kämper & Johannes F. K. Schmidt, Netzwerke als strukturelle Kopplung. Systemtheoretische Überlegungen zum Netzwerkbegriff in Soziale Netzwerke – Konzepte und Methoden der. sozialwissenschaftlichen Nertzwerkforschung, 211 (Weyer, J. Hrsg., 2000).

40 Weiler, Joseph H. H., Epilogue: “Comitology” as Revolution – Infranationalism, Constitutionalism and Democracy, in EU Committees: Social Regulation, Law and Politics, 339, 342 (Christian Joerges & Ellen Vos eds., 1999).

41 Brodocz, André, Strukturelle Kopplung durch Verbände, 2 Soziale Systeme. Zeitschrift für Systemtheorie 361 (1996).

42 Kjaer, Poul F., The Societal Function of European Integration in the Context of World Society, 13 Soziale Systeme. Zeitschrift für Soziologische Theorie 367 (2007).

43 Haltern, Ulrich, Internationales Verfassungsrecht? Anmerkungen zu einer Kopernikanischen Wende, 128 Archiv des Öffentlichen Rechts 511, 512 (2003) (my translation).

44 For the problematic use of the concept of learning in relation to the OMC see Kröger, Sandra, When learning hits politics or: Social policy coordination left to the administrations and the NGOs? 3 European Integration Online Papers (EioP) (2006).

45 See also Kjaer, Poul F., Three Forms of governance and three forms of power, pp. 23 – 43 in Law, Democracy and Solidarity in a Post-national Union. The unsettled political order of Europe, 23, 31 (Erik Oddvar Eriksen, Christian Joerges & Florian Rödel, 2008).

46 Goffman, Erving, Frame Analysis: Essays on the Organization of Experience (1974).

47 Infra, note 34.

48 Teubner, Gunther, Das Recht hybrider Netzwerke, 165 Zeitschrift für das gesamte Handelsrecht und Wirtschaftsrecht 550 (2001).

49 Kjaer, Poul F., Between Governing and Governance. On the Emergence, Function and Form of Europe's Post-national Constellation, European University Institute 141 (2008), available at http://hdl.handle.net/1814/9067, last accessed 14 February 2009.

50 Fischer-Lescano, Andreas & Teubner, Gunther, Regime-Kollisionen: Zur Fragmentierung des globalen Rechts (2006).

51 Infra, note 48.

52 Luhmann, Niklas, Legitimation durch Verfahren 34 (1969); Würtenberger, Thomas, Legitimität, Legalität, in Geschichtliche Grundbegrieffe, Bd. 3, 677, 737 (O Brunner, W. Conze & R. Koselleck hrsg., 1983).

53 Luhmann, Niklas, Politik der Gesellschaft 124 (2000).

54 Luhmann, Niklas, Rechtssoziologie, Band 2 259 (1972); Luhmann, Niklas, Ausdifferenzierung des Rechts, Beiträge zur Rechtssoziologie und Rechtstheorie 132 (1981).

55 Habermas, Jürgen, Faktizität und Geltung. Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des demokratischen Rechtsstaats 135 (1992). For further elaboration see Poul Kjaer, Systems in Context: On the Outcome of the Habermas/Luhmann-debate, Ancilla Iuris 66, 75 (2006).

56 Joerges, Christian & Neyer, Jürgen, From Intergovernmental Bargaining to Deliberative Political Processes: The Constitutionalisation of Comitology, 3 European Law Journal 273 (1997); Joerges, Christian & Neyer, Jürgen, Transforming strategic interaction into deliberative problem-solving: European comitology in the foodstuffs sector, 4 Journal of European Public Policy 609 (1997).

57 Habermas, Jürgen, Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns, Band 1 Handlungsrationalität und gesellschaftliche Rationalisierung 386 (1981).

58 Habermas, Jürgen, Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns, Band 2: Zur Kritik der funktionalistischen Vernunft 189 (1981) (my translation, PFK).

59 Luhmann, Niklas, Die Lebenswelt – nach Rücksprache mit Phänomenologen, 72 Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie, 176, 177 (1986); Luhmann, Niklas, Familiarity, Confidence, Trust: Problems and Alternatives, Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations, 94 (Diego Gambetta ed., 1988).

60 Luhmann, Niklas, Lob der Routine, 55 Verwaltungsarchiv 1 (1964).

61 For further elaboration see Kjaer, Poul, Systems in Context: On the Outcome of the Habermas/Luhmann-debate, Ancilla Iuris 66 (2006).

62 Infra, note 3.

63 Habermas, Jürgen, Further Reflections on the Public Sphere, in Habermas and the Public Sphere, 452 (Craig Calhoun ed., 1992). Also quoted in Joshua Cohen & Charles Sabel, Directly-Deliberative Polyarchy, 3 European Law Journal 313, 339 (1997).

64 Schmalz-Bruns, Rainer, Grenzerfahrungen und Grenzüberschreitungen: Demokratie in integrierten Europa?, in Regieren in entgrenzten Räumen, 369 (Beate Kohler-Koch eds., 1998); Schmalz-Bruns, Rainer: Deliberativer Supranationalismus, 6, 2 Zeitschrift für Internationale Beziehungen185 (1999).

65 The theory of deliberative supranationalism, however, remains a normative theory and will have to be combined with and underpinned by a genuine descriptive theory capable of explaining how the European postnational constellation emerged in the first place. For preliminary reflections see infra, note 48.

* Research fellow, Cluster of Excellence “Formation of Normative Orders”, Goethe -University, Frankfurt am Main. Email: . I would like to thank Christian Joerges for very useful comments on an earlier version of this paper. Full responsibility remains with the author.

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Embeddedness through Networks: A Critical Appraisal of the Network Concept in the Oeuvre of Karl-Heinz Ladeur

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