Three anonymous chromosome 17 DNA markers, D17Tu36, D17Tu43, and D17Le66B, differentiate between house mouse species and/or between t chromosomes. The D17Tu36 probe, which maps near the Fu locus and to the In(17)4 on t chromosomes, identifies at least 15 haplotypes, each haplotype characterized by a particular combination of DNA fragments obtained after digestion with the Taq I restriction endonuclease. Ten of these haplotypes occur in Mus domesticus, while the remaining five occur in M. musculus. In each of these two species, one haplotype is borne by t chromosomes while the other haplotypes are present on non-r chromosomes. The D17Tu43 probe, which maps near the D17Leh122 locus and to the In(17)3 on t chromosomes, also identifies at least 15 haplotypes in Taq I DNA digests, of which nine occur in M. domesticus and six in M. musculus. One of the nine M. domesticus haplotypes is borne by t chromosomes, the other haplotypes are borne by non-f chromosomes; two of the six M. musculus haplotypes are borne by t chromosomes and the remaining four by non-f chromosomes. Some of the D17Tu43 haplotypes are widely distributed in a given species, while others appear to be population-specific. Exceptions to species-specificity are found only in a few mice captured near the M. domesticus-M. musculus hybrid zone or in t chromosomes that appear to be of hybrid origin. The D17Leh66B probe, which maps to the In(17)2, distinguishes three haplotypes of M. domesticus-dznved t chromosomes and one haplotype of M. musculus-derivzd t chromosomes. Because of these characteristics, the three markers are well suited for the study of mouse population genetics in general and of t chromosome population genetics in particular. A preliminary survey of wild M. domesticus and M. musculus populations has not uncovered any evidence of widespread introgression of genes from one species to the other; possible minorintrogressions were found only in the vicinity of the hybrid zone. Typing of inbred strains has revealed the contribution of only M. domesticus DNA to the chromosome 17 of the laboratory mouse.