Six intercropping systems and four levels of nitrogen were compared at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, in the summer rainy seasons (July-October) of 1978 and 1979. The maximum increase in sorghum yield was obtained when it was associated with fodder cowpea, followed by association with grain cowpea and greengram. The application of 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha−1 increased sorghum yield by 8.6, 16.1 and 18.2% in 1978 and by 2.9, 8.1 and 14.1% in 1979, respectively, compared with unfertilized sorghum. The nitrogen uptake by sorghum, and by the total system, was greater in sorghum-legume intercropping systems than in sole sorghum. Nitrogen application also increased the nitrogen uptake by sorghum and by the whole system.