Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

IRRIGATION, SPACING AND CULTIVAR EFFECTS ON NET PHOTOSYNTHETIC RATE, DRY MATTER PARTITIONING AND PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE UNDER SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION IN MOLLISOLS OF NORTHERN INDIA

  • ANCHAL DASS (a1) and SUBHASH CHANDRA (a1)

Summary

Field experiments were conducted on a Typic Hapludoll (Mollisols) soil in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India during the 2008 and 2009 rainy seasons to (1) find out the effect of irrigation schedules and plant spacing on physiological parameters, yield and water productivity of two rice cultivars under System of Rice Intensification (SRI), and (2) compare the performance of SRI with conventional transplanting (CT). Treatments under SRI included 12 combinations of three irrigation schedules, viz. irrigation at 1, 3 and 5 day(s) after disappearance of ponded water (DADPW), two spacing intervals (20 × 20 cm and 25 × 25 cm) and two cultivars (‘Pant Dhan 4’ and ‘Hybrid 6444’). The two control treatments were the CT of each cultivar. The experiment was set in a factorial randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The net photosynthetic rate (NPR) of the topmost fully expanded leaf at tillering and that of flag-leaf at flowering stage was affected significantly by irrigation schedules. Irrigating rice crop at 1 or 3 DADPW, being at par with each other, recorded significantly higher NPR than 5 DADPW. The increase in NPR at 1 and 3 DADPW was 17.1% and 8.4% at tillering and 13.6% and 6.1% at flowering stage, respectively, compared with that at 5 DADPW (tillering: 12.78 μmol CO2 m−2 S−1, flowering: 16.01 μmol CO2 m‑2 S−1). At closer spacing (20 × 20 cm) the cultivars did not differ significantly for NPR; however, at wider spacing (25 × 25 cm), ‘Hybrid 6444’ showed significantly higher NPR than ‘Pant Dhan 4’. Between two methods, SRI recoded higher NPR. Dry matter accumulation (DMA) in leaves and grains declined with delay in irrigation from 1 to 5 DADPW. Wider spacing significantly enhanced DMA in stems and grains. ‘Hybrid 6444’ showed higher DMA in all plant parts than ‘Pant Dhan 4’. Grain yield was not affected significantly by irrigation schedules in 2008, while in 2009, irrigation at 1 and 3 DADPW resulted in 12.8% and 8.0% higher grain yield, respectively, than 5 DADPW (5.84 t ha−1). Wider spacing was superior to closer spacing. SRI improved grain yield by 16.9% and water productivity by 18.5% over CT.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Email: anchal_iari@rediffmail.com; Dr. Anchal Dass, Scientist (Sr. Scale), Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Pusa, New Delhi 110012, India.

References

Hide All
Adusumilli, R. and Bhagya Laxmi, S. (2011). Potential of the system of rice intensification for systemic improvement in rice production and water use: the case of Andhra Pradesh, India. Paddy and Water Environment 9:8997.
Avasthe, R. K., Verma, S., Kumar, A. and Rahman, H. (2012). Performance of rice (Oryza sativa) varieties at different spacing under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in mid-hill acid soils of Sikkim Himalayas. Indian Journal of Agronomy 57 (1):3237.
Babu, P. R. (2007). Response of rice varieties to SRI method of cultivation. ln Proceedings of the Second National Symposium on System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in India – Progress and Prospects, 3–5 October, Agartala, Tripura, 5758.
Baloch, A. W., Soomro, A. M., Javed, M. A., Ahmed, M., Bughio, H. R., Bughio, M. S. and Mastoi, N. N. (2002). Optimum plant density for high yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Asian Journal of Plant Science 1:2527.
Barah, B. 2009. Economic and ecological benefits of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Tamil Nadu. Agricultural Economics Research Review 22:209214.
Barison, J. and Uphoff, N. (2011). Rice yield and its relation to root growth and nutrient-use efficiency under SRI and conventional cultivation: an evaluation in Madagascar. Paddy and Water Environment 9 (1):6578.
Biswas, B.C. (2010). System of rice intensification: success stories of farmers. Fertilizer Marketing News 3–6 July. Available at: http://www.faidelhi.org/Article%20-Dr%20Biswas/Dr20%B%20C%20Biswas%20-%20July%20issue%20of%20Mktg%20news.pdf; last accessed 26 December 2012.
Chen, H. Z., Zhu, D. F., Rao, L. B., Lin, X. Q. and Zhang, Y. P. (2006). Effects of SRI technique on population quality after heading stage and yield formation in rice. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University 25:483487.
Dobermann, A. (2004). A critical assessment of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). Agricultural Systems 79 (3):261281.
Flexas, J. and Medrano, H. (2002). Drought-inhibition of photosynthesis in C3 plants: stomatal and non-stomatal limitations revised. Annals of Botany (Lond.) 89:183189.
Gani, A., Rahman, A., Rustam, D. and Hengsdijk, H. (2002). Synopsis of water management experiments in Indonesia. In Water-Wise Rice Production, 2937 (Eds.Bouman, B. A. M., Hengsdijk, H., Hardy, B., Bindraban, P. S., Tuong, T. P. and Ladha, J. K.). Philippines: IRRI.
Geethalakshmi, V., Ramesh, T., Palamuthirsolai, A., and Lakshmanan, . (2011). Agronomic evaluation of rice cultivation systems for water and grain productivity. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 57 (2):159166.
Ghritlahre, S. K. and Sarial, A. K. (2011). G × E interaction and adaptability of rice cultivars in SRI and normal production systems. Cereal Research Communications 39 (4):589597.
Glover, D. (2011). Science, practice and System of Rice Intensification in Indian agriculture. Food Policy 36:749755.
Hayashi, H. (1976). Studies on large vascular bundles in paddy rice plant and panicle formation. I–III (in Japanese with English summary). Proceedings of Crop Science Society of Japan 45:322342.
Hsiao, T. C. (1973). Plant responses to water stress. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 24:519570.
Jiang, C. Z., Hirasawa, T. and Ishihara, K. (1988). Physiological and ecological characteristics of high yielding varieties in rice plants. II. Leaf photosynthetic rate. Japan Journal of Crop Science 57:139145.
Kim, J. K. and Vergara, B. S. (1991). Morpho-anatomical characteristics of different panicles in low and high tillering rice. Korean Journal of Crop Science 36:568575.
Koga, K. (1992). Introduction to Paddy Field Engineering. Bankok, Thailand: Asian Institute of Technology, 118 pp.
Krishna, A, Biradarpatil, N. K. and Channappagoudar, B. B. (2008). Influence of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) cultivation on seed yield and quality. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural. Science 21 (3):369372.
Krupnik, T. J., Rodenburg, J., Haden, V. R., Mbaye, D. and Shennan, C. (2012a). Genotypic trade-offs between water productivity and weed competition under the System of Rice Intensification in the Sahel. Agricultural Water Management 115:156166.
Krupnik, T. J., Shennan, C. and Rodenburg, J. (2012b). Yield, water productivity and nutrient balances under the System of Rice Intensification and recommended management practices in the Sahel. Field Crops Research 130:155167.
Lawlor, D. W. and Cornic, G. (2002). Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant Cell and Environment 25:275294.
Lu, X. M., Huang, Q. and Liu, H. Z. (2006). Research of some physiological characteristics under the System of Rice Intensification. Journal of South China Agricultural University 25 (1):58 (in Chinese).
Mahapatra, P. K. and Kariali, E. (2008). Time of emergence determines the pattern of dominance of rice tillers. Australian Journal of Crop Science 1 (2):5362.
McDonald, A. J., Hobbs, P. R. and Riha, S. J. (2006). Does the System of Rice Intensification outperform conventional best management? A synopsis of the imperial record. Field Crops Research 96:3136.
Nyamai, M., Mati, B. M., Home, P. G., Odongo, B., Wanjogu, R. and Thuranira, E. (2012). Improving crop productivity and water-use efficiency in basin rice cultivation in Kenya through SRI. Agricultural Engineering International: CIG R Journal 14 (2):113.
Ookawa, T., Naruoka, Y., Yamazaki, T., Suga, J. and Hirasawa, T. (2003). A comparison of the accumulation and partitioning of nitrogen in plants between two rice cultivars. Akenohoshiandapponbare, at the ripening stage. Plant Production Science 6:172178.
Rangaswamy, R. (2006). A Text Book of Agricultural Statistics. New Delhi, India: New Age International, 496 pp.
Salisbury, F. B. and Ross, C. W. (2009). Plant Physiology, 3rd Indian Reprint. New Delhi, India: Cengage Learning India, 682 pp.
Sharma, P. K. (1989). Effect of periodical moisture stress on water-use efficiency in wetland rice. Oryza 26 (3):252257.
Shrirame, M. D., Rajgire, H. J. and Rajgire, A. H. (2000). Effect of spacing and seedling number per hill on growth attributes and yield of rice hybrids under lowland condition. Journal of Soils and Crops 10 (1):109113.
Sikuku, P. A., Netondo, G. W., Musyimi, D. M. and Onyango, J. C. (2010). Effects of water deficit on days to maturity and yield of three NERICA rainfed rice varieties. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 5 (3):19.
Stoop, Willem A. (2011). The scientific case for System of Rice Intensification and its relevance for sustainable crop intensification. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9 (3):443455.
Thakur, A. K. (2010). Critiquing SRI criticism: beyond scepticism with empiricism. Current Science 98 (10):12941299.
Thakur, A. K., Rath, S. and Kumar, A. (2011). Performance evaluation of rice varieties under the System of Rice Intensification compared with the conventional transplanting system. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 57 (3):223238.
Thakur, A. K., Rath, S., Roychowdhury, S. and Uphoff, N. (2010). Comparative performance of rice with System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and conventional management using different plant spacings. Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science 196 (2):146159.
Tripathi, R. P. (1990). Water Requirement in Rice-Wheat System. Proceedings of the Rice–Wheat Workshop, 15–16 October, Modipuram, UP, India.
Tsujimoto, Y., Horie, T., Randriamihary, H., Shiraiwa, T. and Homma, K. (2009). Soil management: the key factors for higher productivity in the fields utilizing the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the central highland of Madagascar. Agricultural Systems 100 (1–3):6171.
Uphoff, N. (2006). The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as a methodology for reducing water requirements in irrigated rice production. Paper for International Dialogue on Rice and Water: Exploring Options for Food Security and Sustainable Environments, 7–8 March, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines.
Uphoff, N. (2012). Comment to System of Rice Intensification: time for an empirical turn. Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 59:5360.
Uphoff, N., Kassam, A. and Stoop, W. (2008). A critical assessment of a desk study comparing crop production systems: the example of the ‘System of Rice Intensification’ versus ‘best management practice’. Field Crops Research 108:109114.
Whitefield, D. M. and Smith, C. J. (1989). Effect of irrigation and nitrogen on growth, light interception and efficiency of light conversion in wheat. Field Crops Research 20 (4):279292.
Zhao, L., Wu, L., Li, Y., Lu, X., Zhu, D. and Uphoff, N. (2009). Influence of the System of Rice Intensification on rice yield and nitrogen and water-use efficiency with different N application rates. Experimental Agriculture 45:275286.
Zhou, J., Xie, X. L. and Wang, K. R. (2003). Analysis of photosynthesis characteristics in rice under different irrigations. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 11:1719.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed