1.Council of Europe, Statement by Carl Bildt, Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, on his visit to Georgia, Press Release 579, 11 August 2008.
2.Council of Europe, PACE monitoring rapporteur on visit to Moscow to hold talks on the conflict in Georgia, Press Release 588, 20 August 2008.
3.Council of Europe, HR Commissioner – End of his visit to Georgia and Russia, Press Release 612, 5 September 2008.
4. See P. Alston (with M. Bustelo and J. Heenan) (1999) The EU and Human Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press); A. Williams (2004) EU Human Rights Policies. A Study in Irony (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
6. The ‘special guest status’ of the Belarusian parliament to the CoE's Parliamentary Assembly was suspended in 1997. The following year, the country's request for membership in the CoE was frozen. Most recently, the Parliamentary Assembly decided to suspend its high-level contacts with the Belarusian parliament or the country's authorities due to the latter's unwillingness to respect and adhere to the CoE's standards. Council of Europe, PACE suspends its high-level contacts with the Belarusian Government and Parliament, Press Release 259, 29 April 2010; Council of Europe, Belarus: PACE calls for the immediate release of detainees and maintains its suspension of special guest status, Press Release 78, 27 January 2011.
7. See V. Djerić (2000) Admission to Membership of the Council of Europe and legal significance of commitments entered into by New Member States. Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, 60, pp. 605–629; J. Malenovský (2000) L'Espace Juridique Européen et les Noveaux Pays Membres du Conseil de l'Europe. In B. Haller, H.-C. Krüger and H. Petzold, H. (eds) (2000) Law in Greater Europe. Towards a Common Legal Area. Studies in Honor of Heinrich Klebes (Den Haag: Kluwer), pp. 362–376.
8. This expression was coined by a former Secretary General of the CoE, Daniel Tarschys. Quoted in D. Huber (1999) A decade which Made History – The Council of Europe 1989-1999 (Strasbourg: Council of Europe Press), p. 167.
9. R. Blackburn and J. Polakiewicz (eds) (2001) Fundamental Rights in Europe. The European Convention on Human Rights and its Member States, 1950-2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press); S. Greer (2006) The European Convention on Human Rights. Achievements, Problems and Prospects (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
10.de Schutter, O. (1998) La Nouvelle Cour Européenne Des Droits de L'Homme. Cahiers de Droit Européen, 34, pp. 319–352.
15.Eaton, M. and Schokkenbroek, J. (2005) Reforming the Human Rights protection system established by the European Convention on Human Rights. A new Protocol No. 14 to the Convention and other measures to guarantee the long-term effectiveness of the Convention system. Human Rights Law Journal, 26, pp. 1–4.
16. K.-O. Sattler (2010) Mehr Tempo, mehr Effizienz, Das Parlament, 10 May 2010.
17.Council of Europe, Protocol 14 – the reform of the European Court of Human Rights. Council of Europe Press Division, 31 May 2010.
19. J.-C. Juncker (2006) Council of Europe – European Union: ‘A sole ambition for the European continent.’ Report by Jean-Claude Juncker, Prime minister of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, to the attention of the Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the Council of Europe. 11 April 2006, available at: http://www.coe.int/t/der/docs/RapJuncker_E.pdf, accessed 26 July 2010. 20. Quoted in L. Kubosova (2005) EU discouraged from further overlap in human rights monitoring. EUobserver.com, 7 February 2005, available at: http://euobserver.com/9/18347, accessed 8 October 2008.
21.European Parliament, Resolution on the alleged use of European countries by the CIA for the transportation and illegal detention of prisoners, T6-0032/2007, 14 February 2007, no. 33.
22.Committee of Ministers, Memorandum of Understanding between the Council of Europe and the European Union, CM (2007) 74, 10 May 2007.
23.Council of Europe, Signing of a cooperation agreement between PACE and EP, Press Release 847, 28 November 2007.
24. A recent overview on the co-operation between the CoE and the EU can be found in Committee of Ministers, Co-operation between the Council of Europe and the European Union. Report for the 120th Ministerial Session, CM (2010) 52, 6 May 2010.
26. S. Richter and W. Zellner (2008) A New Helsinki for the OSCE? Chances for a revival of the European security dialogue. Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik Comments, No. 31, Berlin; P. Nopens (2010) A new security architecture for Europe? Russian proposals and western reactions, Part II, Egmont Royal Institute for International Relations Security Policy Brief, No. 10, Brussels.
27.Althauser, C. D. (1997) Rußlands Weg in den Europarat (Münster: LIT).
28.Francis, C. (2008) ‘Selective affinities’: the reactions of the Council of Europe and the European Union to the second armed conflict in Chechnya (1999-2006). Europe-Asia Studies, 60, pp. 317–338; K. Brummer (2010) Enhancing intergovernmentalism: the Council of Europe and human rights. International Journal of Human Rights, 14, pp. 280–299.
29.Council of Europe, Carl Bildt condemns Russia's recognition of independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Press Release 598, 26 August 2008.
30.Council of Europe, Council of Europe Secretary General Terry Davis: Russia cannot have it both ways, Press Release 596, 26 August 2008.
31.Parliamentary Assembly, Reconsideration of previously ratified credentials of the Russian delegation on substantial grounds, Resolution 1631, 1 October 2008.
32.Parliamentary Assembly, Reconsideration on substantive grounds of previously ratified credentials of the Russian delegation (Rule 9 of the Rules of Procedure of the Assembly), Resolution 1687, 1 October 2009.
33.Parliamentary Assembly, The war between Georgia and Russia: one year after, Resolution 1683, 29 September 2009.
34.Parliamentary Assembly, Reconsideration on substantive grounds of previously ratified credentials of the Russian delegation (Rule 9 of the Rules of Procedure of the Assembly), Resolution 1687, 1 October 2009.
35.Brummer, K. (2010) Enhancing intergovernmentalism: the Council of Europe and human rights. International Journal of Human Rights, 14, pp. 280–299.
37. However, both the United States of America and Japan are observers although they have not abolished the death penalty.
38.Parliamentary Assembly, External relations of the Council of Europe, Recommendation 1753, 26 June 2006.
39.Committee of Ministers, External relations of the Council of Europe. Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1753 (2006). Reply adopted by the Committee of Ministers, CM/AS (2007) Recommendation 1753, 19 January 2007.
40.Parliamentary Assembly, Establishment of a ‘partner for democracy’ status with the Parliamentary Assembly, Resolution 1680, 26 June 2009.
41.Whitman, R. and Wolff, S. (eds) (2010) The European Neighbourhood Policy in Perspective. Context, Implementation and Impact (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
42. J. Polakiewicz (1999) Treaty-Making in the Council of Europe (Strasbourg: Council of Europe Press).
44. These and the following numbers (all as of 24 March 2011) can be found on the website of the Treaty Office, available at: http://conventions/coe.int, accessed 24 March 2011.
45.Jaskiernia, J. (2003) The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (Warsaw: Council of Europe Information Office), p. 374.
46.Committee of Ministers, 117th Session of the Committee of Ministers (Strasbourg, 10-11 May 2007). Conclusions of the Chair, CM (2007) 66 final, 10 May 2007.