Skip to main content Accessibility help

Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS). A multisite study of clinical, social and biological characteristics, patterns of care and predictors of outcome in first-episode psychosis. Background, methodology and overview of the patient sample

  • A. Lasalvia (a1), S. Tosato (a1), P. Brambilla (a2), M. Bertani (a1), C. Bonetto (a1), D. Cristofalo (a1), S. Bissoli (a1), K. De Santi (a1), L. Lazzarotto (a1), G. Zanatta (a1), G. Marrella (a1), R. Mazzoncini (a1), M. Zanoni (a1), N. Garzotto (a3), C. Dolce (a4), S. Nicolau (a5), L. Ramon (a6), C. Perlini (a7), G. Rambaldelli (a7), M. Bellani (a7), M. Tansella (a1), M. Ruggeri (a1) and the PICOS-Veneto Group...



This paper aims at providing an overview of the background, design and initial findings of Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS).


PICOS is a large multi-site population-based study on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients attending public mental health services in the Veneto region (Italy) over a 3-year period. PICOS has a naturalistic longitudinal design and it includes three different modules addressing, respectively, clinical and social variables, genetics and brain imaging. Its primary aims are to characterize FEP patients in terms of clinical, psychological and social presentation, and to investigate the relative weight of clinical, environmental and biological factors (i.e. genetics and brain structure/functioning) in predicting the outcome of FEP.


An in-depth description of the research methodology is given first. Details on recruitment phase and baseline and follow-up evaluations are then provided. Initial findings relating to patients' baseline assessments are also presented. Future planned analyses are outlined.


Both strengths and limitations of PICOS are discussed in the light of issues not addressed in the current literature on FEP. This study aims at making a substantial contribution to research on FEP patients. It is hoped that the research strategies adopted in PICOS will enhance the convergence of methodologies in ongoing and future studies on FEP.


Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Dr Antonio Lasalvia, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Verona, Policlinico ‘G.B. Rossi’, Piazzale L. A. Scuro 10, 37134-Verona, Italy. (Email:


Hide All
Addington, J, Chaves, A, Addington, D (2006). Diagnostic stability over one year in first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 86, 7175.
Alkelai, A, Baum, A, Carless, M, Crowley, J, Dasbanerjee, T, Dempster, E, Docherty, S, Hare, E, Galsworthy, MJ, Grover, D, Glubb, D, Karlsson, R, Mill, J, Sen, S, Quinones, MP, Vallender, EJ, Verma, R, Vijayan, NN, Villafuerte, S, Voineskos, AN, Volk, H, Yu, L, Zimmermann, P, DeLisi, LE (2008). The XVth World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics, October 7–11, 2007: Rapporteur summaries of oral presentations. American Journal of Medical Genetic, Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 147B, 233277.
Allen, NC, Bagade, S, McQueen, MB, Ioannidis, JP, Kavvoura, FK, Khoury, MJ, Tanzi, RE, Bertram, L (2008). Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in schizophrenia: the SzGene database. Nature Genetics 40, 827834.
Amaddeo, F, Zambello, F, Tansella, M, Thornicroft, G (2001). Accessibility and pathways to psychiatric care in a community-based mental health system. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 36, 500507.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-IV), 4th edn.APA: Washington.
Arango, C, Moreno, C, Martínez, S, Parellada, M, Desco, M, Moreno, D, Fraguas, D, Gogtay, N, James, A, Rapoport, J (2008). Longitudinal brain changes in early-onset psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 34, 341353.
Barnes, TRE (1989). A rating scale for drug-induced akathisia. British Journal of Psychiatry 154, 672676.
Bech, P, Rafaelsen, OJ, Kramp, P, Bolwig, TG (1978). The Mania Rating Scale: scale construction and inter-observer agreement. Neuropharmacology 6, 420431.
Bechara, A, Damasio, A, Damasio, H, Anderson, S (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition 50, 715.
Bellani, M, Marzi, CA, Savazzi, S, Perlini, C, Cerruti, S, Ferro, A, Marinelli, V, Sponda, S, Rambaldelli, G, Tansella, M, Brambilla, P (2010). Laterality effects in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Experimental Brain Research 201, 339344.
Bergen, SE, Petryshen, TL (2012). Genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia: does bigger lead to better results? Current Opinion in Psychiatry 25, 7682.
Bertani, M, Lasalvia, A, Bonetto, C, Tosato, S, Cristofalo, D, Bissoli, S, De Santi, K, Mazzoncini, R, Lazzarotto, L, Santi, M, Sale, A, Scalabrin, D, Abate, M, Tansella, M, Ruggeri, M, on behalf of PICOS-Veneto Group (2012). The influence of gender on clinical and social characteristics of patients at psychosis onset: a report from the Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS). Psychological Medicine 42, 769782.
Bottlender, R, Jaeger, M, Groll, C, Strauss, A, Moeller, HJ (2001). Deficit states in schizophrenia and their association with the length of illness and gender. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 251, 272278.
Bromet, EJ, Naz, B, Fochtmann, LJ, Carlson, GA, Tanenberg-Karant, M (2005). Long-term diagnostic stability and outcome in recent first-episode cohort studies of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 31, 639649.
Buchanan, RW, Heinrichs, DW (1989). The Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES): a structured instrument for the assessment of neurological signs in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 27, 335350.
Cahn, W, Hulshoff Pol, HE, Lems, EB, van Haren, NE, Schnack, HG, van der Linden, JA, Schothorst, PF, van Engeland, H, Kahn, RS (2002). Brain volume changes in first-episode schizophrenia: a 1-year follow-up study. Archives of General Psychiatry 59, 10021010.
Carpenter, WT Jr., Buchanan, RW, Kirkpatrick, B, Tamminga, C, Wood, F (1993). Strong inference, theory testing, and the neuroanatomy of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 50, 25831.
Colombo, L, Sartori, G, Brivio, C (2002). Stima del Quoziente Intellettivo tramite l'applicazione del TIB (Test Breve di Intelligenza). Giornale Italiano di Psicologia 29, 613637.
Cook, EH, Scherer, SW (2008). Copy-number variations associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. Nature 455, 919923.
David, AS, Buchanan, A, Reed, A, Almeida, O (1992). The assessment of insight in psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 161, 599602.
DeLisi, LE, Hoff, AL (2005). Failure to find progressive temporal lobe volume decreases 10 years subsequent to a first episode of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 138, 265268.
DeLisi, LE, Sakuma, M, Maurizio, AM, Relja, M, Hoff, AL (2004). Cerebral ventricular change over the first 10 years after the onset of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 130, 5770.
DeRosse, P, Funke, B, Burdick, KE, Lencz, T, Ekholm, JM, Kane, JM, Kucherlapati, R, Malhotra, AK (2006). Dysbindin genotype and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 163, 532534.
de Salvia, D, Barbato, A, Salvo, P, Zadro, F (1993). Prevalence and incidence of schizophrenic disorders in Portogruaro. An Italian case register study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 181, 275–82.
Edwards, J, McGorry, PD (2002). Implementing Early Intervention in Psychosis. Martin Dunitz: London.
Emsley, R, Chiliza, B, Schoeman, R (2008). Predictors of long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 21, 173177.
Estes, WD, Taylor, HA (1964). A detection method and probabilistic models for assessing information processing from brief visual displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 52, 446454.
Fearon, P, Kirkbride, JB, Morgan, C, Dazzan, P, Morgan, K, Lloyd, T, Hutchinson, G, Tarrant, J, Fung, WL, Holloway, J, Mallett, R, Harrison, G, Leff, J, Jones, PB, Murray, RM, ÆSOP Study Group (2006). Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in ethnic minority groups: results from the MRC ÆSOP study. Psychological Medicine 36, 15411550.
Foerster, A, Lewis, S, Owen, M, Murray, R (1991). Pre-morbid adjustment and personality in psychosis: effects of sex and diagnosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 158, 171176.
Folstein, MF, Folstein, SE, McHugh, PR (1975). ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research 12: 189198.
Fowler, D, Rollinson, R, French, P (2011). Adherence and competence assessment in studies of CBT for psychosis: current status and future directions. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 20, 121126.
Friis, S, Larsen, TK, Melle, I, Opjordsmoen, S, Johannessen, JO, Haahr, U, Simonsen, E, Rund, BR, Vaglum, P, McGlashan, T (2003). Methodological pitfalls in early detection studies – the NPE Lecture 2002. Nordic Association for Psychiatric Epidemiology. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 107, 39.
Gogtay, N, Vyas, NS, Testa, R, Wood, SJ, Pantelis, C (2011). Age of onset of schizophrenia: perspectives from structural neuroimaging studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 504513.
Goldberg, D, Williams, P (1988). A User's Guide to the General Health Questionnaire. NFER-Nelson: Windsor.
Grant, C, Addington, J, Addington, D, Konnert, C (2001). Social functioning in first and multiepisode schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 46, 746749.
Hamilton, M (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 23, 5662.
Harris, A, Brennan, J, Anderson, J, Taylor, A, Sanbrook, M, Fitzgerald, D, Lucas, S, Redoblado-Hodge, A, Gomes, L, Gordon, E (2005). Clinical profiles, scope and general findings of the Western Sydney First Episode Psychosis Project. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 39, 3643.
Harrison, PJ, Lewis, DA (2003). Neuropathology of schizophrenia. In Schizophrenia, 2nd edn (ed. Hirsch, SR and Weinberger, DR), pp. 310325. Blackwell Science Ltd: Oxford.
Heaton, RK (1981). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources. Psychological Assessment Resources: Odessa, FL.
Ho, BC, Andreasen, NC, Nopoulos, P, Arndt, S, Magnotta, V, Flaum, M (2003). Progressive structural brain abnormalities and their structural relationship to clinical outcome: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study early in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 585594.
Hox, J (2002). Multilevel Analysis. Techniques and Applications. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., Publishers: Mahwah, NJ.
Jablensky, A (2006). Subtyping schizophrenia: implications for genetic research. Molecular Psychiatry 11, 815836.
Jablensky, A, Sartorius, N, Ernberg, G, Anker, M, Korten, A, Cooper, JE, Day, R, Bertelsen, A (1992). Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study. Psychological Medicine, Monograph Supplement 20, 197.
Jackson, C, Bernard, M, Birchwood, M (2011). The efficacy of psychotherapy in reducing post-psychotic trauma. Epidemiology Psychiatric Sciences 20, 127131.
Kay, SR, Fiszbein, A, Opler, LA (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13, 261276.
Kirchner, WK (1958). Age differences in short-term retention of rapidly changing information. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55, 352358.
Larsen, TK, Friis, S, Haahr, U, Johannessen, JO, Melle, I, Opjordsmoen, S, Rund, BR, Simonsen, E, Vaglum, PV, McGlashan, TH (2004). Premorbid adjustment in first-episode non-affective psychosis: distinct patterns of pre-onset course. British Journal of Psychiatry 185, 108115.
Lasalvia, A, Ruggeri, M (2007). Assessing the outcome of community-based psychiatric care: building a feed-back loop from ‘real world’ services research into clinical practice. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116 (Suppl. 437), 615.
Lasalvia, A, Tansella, M (2010). Acute in-patient care in modern, community-based mental health services. Where and how? Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale 19, 275281.
Lasalvia, A, Bonetto, C, De Santi, K, Ruggeri, M (2004). Patterns of clinical course in persons with mental disorders: which impact on social disability and quality of life? A longitudinal study (Italian). Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale 13, 169190.
Lasalvia, A, Gentile, B, Ruggeri, M, et al. (2007). Heterogeneity of the Departments of Mental Health in the Veneto Region ten years after the National Plan 1994–96 for Mental Health. Which implication for clinical practice? Findings from the PICOS Project (Italian). Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale 16, 5970.
Lasalvia, A, Bonetto, C, Bertani, M, Bissoli, S, Cristofalo, D, Marrella, G, Ceccato, E, Cremonese, C, De Rossi, M, Lazzarotto, L, Marangon, V, Morandin, I, Zucchetto, M, Tansella, M, Ruggeri, M (2009). Influence of perceived organizational factors on job burnout: survey of community mental health staff. British Journal of Psychiatry 195, 537544.
Leyland, AH, Goldestein, H (2003). Multilevel Modeling of Health Statistics. John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY.
Liddle, PF, Pantelis, C (2003). Brain imaging in schizophrenia. In Schizophrenia, 2nd edn (ed. Hirsch, SR and Weinberger, DR), pp. 403417. Blackwell Science Ltd: Oxford.
Little, RJA, Rubin, DB (2002). Statistical Analysis with Missing Data, Second editionNew York: Wiley.
Maier, W (2008). Common risk genes for affective and schizophrenic psychoses. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 258 (Suppl. 2), 3740.
Malla, A, Payne, J (2005). First-episode psychosis: psychopathology, quality of life, and functional outcome. Schizophrenia Bulletin 31, 650671.
Malla, A, Norman, RM (2006). The Canadian National Outcomes Study in Schizophrenia – Preface. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 113 (Suppl. 430), 3.
Malla, AK, Takhar, JJ, Norman, RM, Manchanda, R, Cortese, L, Haricharan, R, Verdi, M, Ahmed, R (2002). Negative symptoms in first episode non-affective psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 105, 431439.
Marzi, CA (1999). The Poffenberger paradigm: a first, simple, behavioural tool to study interhemispheric transmission in humans. Brain Research Bulletin 50, 421422.
Maxwell, E (1992). Manual for the Family Interview for Genetics Studies. Clinical Neurogenetics Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health: Bethesda, MD.
McCrone, P, Leese, M, Thornicroft, G, Schene, A, Knudsen, HC, Vazquez Barquero, JL, Lasalvia, A, Padfield, S, White, IR, Griffiths, G, the EPSILON Study Group (2000). The reliability of the Camberwell Assessment of Need-European Version. EPSILON Study 6. British Journal of Psychiatry 177 (Suppl. 39), 3440.
McGlashan, TH, Carpenter, WT Jr, Bartko, JJ (1988). Issues of design and methodology in long-term followup studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 14, 569574.
McGorry, PD, Krstev, H, Harrigan, S (2000). Early detection and treatment delay: implications for outcome in early psychosis. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 13, 3743.
Menezes, NM, Arenovich, T, Zipursky, RB (2006). A systematic review of longitudinal outcome studies of first-episode psychosis. Psychological Medicine 36, 13491362.
Morgan, C, Dazzan, P, Morgan, K, Jones, P, Harrison, G, Leff, J, Murray, R, Fearon, P, ÆSOP Study Group (2006). First episode psychosis and ethnicity: initial findings from the ÆSOP study. World Psychiatry 5, 4046.
Moritz, S, Lambert, M, Andresen, B, Bothern, A, Naber, D, Krausz, M (2001). Subjective cognitive dysfunction in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry 42, 213216.
Moritz, S, Andresen, B, Perro, C, Schickel, M, Kraus, M, Naber, D, PERSIST Study Group (2002). Neurocognitive performance in first episode and chronic schizophrenic patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 252, 3337.
Mueser, KT, Nishith, P, Tracy, JI, DeGirolamo, J, Molinaro, M. (1995). Expectations and motives for substance use in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 21, 367378.
Nasrallah, H, Tandon, R, Keshavan, M (2011). Beyond the facts in schizophrenia: closing the gaps in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 20, 317327.
Nelson, HE (1982). National Adult Heading Test (NART): Test Manual. NFER-Nelson: Windsor.
Norman, RM, Malla, AK (2001). Duration of untreated psychosis: a critical examination of the concept and its importance. Psychological Medicine 31, 381400.
Nuechterlein, KH (1991). Vigilance in schizophrenia and related disorders. In Handbook of Schizophrenia. Vol. 5: Neuropsychology, Psychophysiology and Information Processing (ed. Seinhauer, SR, Gruzelier, JH and Zubin, J), pp. 397433. Elsevier Science Publisher: New York, NY.
Onwumere, J, Bebbington, P, Kuipers, E (2011). Family interventions in early psychosis: specificity and effectiveness. Epidemiology Psychiatric Sciences 20, 113119.
Pantelis, C, Yücel, M, Wood, SJ, Velakoulis, D, Sun, D, Berger, G, Stuart, GW, Yung, A, Phillips, L, McGorry, PD (2005). Structural brain imaging evidence for multiple pathological processes at different stages of brain development in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 31, 672696.
Papagno, C, Cappa, SF, Capitani, E, Forelli, A, Garavaglia, G, Laiacona, M, Capitani, E, Vallar, G (1995). La comprensione non letterale del linguaggio: taratura di un test di comprensione di metafore e di espressioni idiomatiche. Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria 56, 402420.
Parker, G, Tupling, H, Brown, LB (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology 52, 110.
Price, G, Cercignani, M, Bagary, MS, Barnes, TR, Barker, GJ, Joyce, EM, Ron, MA (2006). A volumetric MRI and magnetization transfer imaging follow-up study of patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 87, 100108.
Priebe, S, Huxley, P, Knight, S, Evans, S (1999). Application and results of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). International Journal of Social Psychiatry 45, 712.
Ram, R, Bromet, EJ, Eaton, WW, Pato, C, Schwartz, JE (1992). The natural course of schizophrenia: a review of first-admission studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 18, 185207.
Raven, J, Raven, JC, Court, JH (2003). Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales. Section 1: General Overview. Harcourt Assessment: San Antonio, TX.
Rietkerk, T, Boks, MP, Sommer, IE, Liddle, PF, Ophoff, RA, Kahn, RS (2008). The genetics of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia: review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 102, 197205.
Ruggeri, M, Lasalvia, A, Dall'Agnola, R, Wijngaarden van, B, Knudsen, HC, Leese, M, Gaite, L, Tansella, M, the EPSILON Study Group (2000). Development, internal consistency and reliability of the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale-European Version. EPSILON Study 7. British Journal of Psychiatry 177 (Suppl. 39), 4148.
Ruggeri, M, Lasalvia, A, Tansella, M, Bonetto, C, Abate, M, Thornicroft, G, Allevi, L, Ognibene, P (2004). Heterogeneity of outcomes in schizophrenia: 3-year follow-up of treated prevalent cases. British Journal of Psychiatry 184, 4857.
Ruggeri, M, Salvi, G, Bonetto, C, Lasalvia, A, Allevi, L, Parabiaghi, A, Bertani, M, Tansella, M (2007). Outcome of patients dropping out from community-based mental health care: a 6-year multiwave follow-up study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 116 (Suppl. 437), 4252.
Salvatore, P, Baldessarini, RJ, Tohen, M, Khalsa, HM, Sanchez-Toledo, JP, Zarate, CA Jr, Vieta, E, Maggini, C (2009). McLean-Harvard International First-Episode Project: two-year stability of DSM-IV diagnoses in 500 first-episode psychotic disorder patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 70, 458466.
Sanders, AR, Duan, J, Levinson, DF, Shi, J, He, D, Hou, C, Burrell, GJ, Rice, JP, Nertney, DA, Olincy, A, Rozic, P, Vinogradov, S, Buccola, NG, Mowry, BJ, Freedman, R, Amin, F, Black, DW, Silverman, JM, Byerley, WF, Crowe, RR, Cloninger, CR, Martinez, M, Gejman, PV (2008). No significant association of 14 candidate genes with schizophrenia in a large European ancestry sample: implications for psychiatric genetics. American Journal of Psychiatry 165, 497506.
Shenton, ME, Dickey, CC, Frumin, M, McCarley, RW (2001). A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 49, 152.
Shi, Y, Li, Z, Xu, Q, Wang, T, Li, T, Shen, J, Zhang, F, Chen, J, Zhou, G, Ji, W, Li, B, Xu, Y, Liu, D, Wang, P, Yang, P, Liu, B, Sun, W, Wan, C, Qin, S, He, G, Steinberg, S, Cichon, S, Werge, T, Sigurdsson, E, Tosato, S, Palotie, A, Nöthen, MM, Rietschel, M, Ophoff, RA, Collier, DA, Rujescu, D, Clair, DS, Stefansson, H, Stefansson, K, Ji, J, Wang, Q, Li, W, Zheng, L, Zhang, H, Feng, G, He, L (2011). Common variants on 8p12 and 1q24.2 confer risk of schizophrenia. Nature Genet ics 43, 12241227.
Simpson, GN, Angus, JWS (1970). A rating scale for extrapyramidal side effects. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 212 (Suppl. 44), 1119.
Steen, RG, Mull, C, McClure, R, Hamer, RM, Lieberman, JA (2006). Brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. British Journal of Psychiatry 188, 510518.
Sullivan, PF (2008). The dice are rolling for schizophrenia genetics. Psychological Medicine 38, 16931696.
Tansella, M, Balestrieri, M, Meneghelli, G, Micciolo, R (1991). Trends in the provision of psychiatric care 1979–1988. In From Community-Based Psychiatry: Long Term Patterns of Care in South-Verona (ed. Tansella, M), pp. 516. Psychological Medicine, Monograph Supplement 19. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge
Tansella, M, Amaddeo, F, Burti, L, Lasalvia, A, Ruggeri, M (2006). Evaluating a community-based mental health service focusing on severe mental illness. The Verona experience. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 113 (Suppl. 429), 9094.
Tello, JE, Mazzi, M, Tansella, M, Bonizzato, P, Jones, J, Amaddeo, F (2005). Does socioeconomic status affect the use of community-based psychiatric services? A South Verona case register study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 112, 215223.
Tosato, S, Lasalvia, A (2009). The contribution of epidemiology to defining the most appropriate approach to genetic research on schizophrenia. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale 8, 8190.
Tosato, S, Ruggeri, M, Bonetto, C, Bertani, M, Marrella, G, Lasalvia, A, Cristofalo, D, Aprili, G, Tansella, M, Dazzan, P, Diforti, M, Murray, RM, Collier, DA (2007). Association study of dysbindin gene with clinical and outcome measures in a representative cohort of Italian schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Medical Genetic Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetic 144B, 647659.
van Os, J, Kapur, S (2009). Schizophrenia. Lancet 374, 635645.
van Wijngaarden, B, Schene, A, Koeter, M, Vázquez-Barquero, JL, Knudsen, HC, Lasalvia, A, McCrone, P, the EPSILON Study Group (2000). Caregiving in schizophrenia: development, internal consistency and reliability of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire-European version (IEQ). British Journal of Psychiatry 177 (Suppl. 39), 2127.
Weinberger, DR (1995). From neuropathology to neurodevelopment. Lancet 34, 65526557.
World Health Organization (1988). Disability Assessment Schedule-II (DAS). World Health Organization: Geneva.
World Health Organization (1992a). Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), version 1.0. World Health Organization: Geneva.
World Health Organization (1992b). Life Chart Schedule (LCS). World Health Organization: Geneva.
Wunderink, L, Sytema, S, Nienhuis, FJ, Wiersma, D (2009). Clinical recovery in first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35, 362369.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed