This paper is based on the UNHCR commissioned report to which many persons contributed: Conceptualisation and editing: Ghayda Hassan (University of Quebec, Canada), Laurence J. Kirmayer (McGill University, Canada), Peter Ventevogel (UNHCR, Switzerland). Contributing authors: Abdelwahed Mekki-Berrada (University Laval, Canada), Constanze Quosh (UNHCR, Uganda), Rabih el Chammay, (Ministry of Public Health, Lebanon), Jean-Benoit Deville-Stoetzel (University of Montreal, Canada), Ahmed Youssef (Canada), Hussam Jefee-Bahloul (Yale University, United States), Andres Barkeel-Oteo (Yale University, United States), Adam Coutts (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom), Suzan Song (George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, USA). Reviewers and other contributors (in alphabetical order): Deeb Abbara (Psycho-Social Services and Training Institute, Egypt), Mohammed Abou-Saleh (University of London, United Kingdom), Mohamed Abo-Hilal (Syria Bright Future, Jordan), Nadim Almoshmosh (Northamptonshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom), Ghida Anani (ABAAD, Lebanon), Homam Masry Arafa (UNHCR, Syria), Najib George Awad (Hartford Seminary, USA), Naz Ahmad Baban (Erbil Psychiatric Hospital, Iraq), Mary Jo Baca (International Medical Corps, Jordan), Alaa Bairoutieh (Psycho-Social Services and Training Institute, Egypt), Ahmad Bawaneh (International Medical Corps, Jordan), Ammar Beetar (UNHCR, Syria), Maria Bornian (UNICEF, Lebanon), Boris Budosan (Malteser International, Croatia), Ann Burton (UNHCR, Jordan), Adrienne Carter (Center for Victims of Torture, Jordan), Dawn Chatty (Refugee Study Centre, University of Oxford, United Kingdom), Alexandra Chen (UNWRA, Lebanon), Rony N. Abou Daher (Lebanon), Paolo Feo (Un Ponte Per, Italy), Ilona Fricker (CVT, Jordan), Muriel Génot (Handicap International, Jordan), Hagop Gharibian (Syrian Arab Red Crescent, Syria), Audrey Gibeaux (MSF, Lebanon), Amber Gray (Center for Victims of Torture, USA), Muhammad Harfoush (UNHCR, Ethiopia), Aram Hassan (Centrum ‘45, The Netherlands), Maysaa Hassan (IOM, Syria), Tayseer Hassoon (in unaffiliated capacity, Syria), Zeinab Hijazi (International Medical Corps, USA), Leah James (CVT, Jordan), Wissam Hamza Mahasneh (Organization of the Islamic Cooperation, Turkey), Cosette Maiky (UNWRA, Lebanon), Tamara Marcello (ARDD-Legal Aid, Jordan), Mamoun Mobayed (Behaviour Health Centre, Qatar), Luca Modenesi (CVT, Jordan), Amanda Melville (UNHCR Regional Bureau, Amman), Redar Muhammed (UPP, Iraq), Mark van Ommeren (WHO, Geneva), Basma el Rahman (International Medical Corps, Turkey), Mindy Ran (Netherlands), Rawisht Rasheed (University of Soran, Iraq), Khalid Saeed (WHO, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office), Josi Salem (Al Himaya Foundation, Jordan), Marian Schilperoord (UNHCR, Geneva) Guglielmo Schininà (IOM, Switzerland), Mohamed el Shazly (International Medical Corps, Turkey), Team of Un Ponte Per, Dohuk, Iraq (Ramziya Ibrahim Amin, Rezan Ali Isma'il, Diyar Faiq Omar, Sam Jibrael, Bradost Qasem), Ruth Wells (Sydney University, Australia), Gabriela Wengert (UNHCR, Jordan), Eyad Yanes (World Health Organization, Syria).
Acarturk, C, Konuk, E, Cetinkaya, M, Senay, I, Sijbrandij, M, Cuijpers, P, Aker, T (2015). EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Psychotraumatology
6, 27414. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438099/.
Al Akash, R, Boswell, K (2014). Listening to the voices of Syrian women refugees in Jordan: Ethnographies of displacement and emplacement. In Conference Paper – Refugee Voices 2014 Refugee Studies Centre (Rsc) Oxford.
Al-Krenawi, A (2005). Cross-national study of attitudes towards seeking professional help: Jordan, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Arabs in Israel. International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Almoshmosh, N (2015). Highlighting the mental health needs of Syrian refugees. Intervention
Alsheikh, M (2011). Methods of coping with posttraumatic stress and their relationship with other variables: a comparative field study of children (ages 9 to 12) who were exposed to car accidents in the province of Damascus. Damascus University Journal
Arslan, MM (2015). Increased drug seizures in Hatay, Turkey related to civil war in Syria. International Journal of Drug Policy
Berns, J (2014). Syrian Refugee Access to Care Study: Medical Service need Among Post-Emergency Syrian Refugees in Dohuk Governorate, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. World Health Organisation and Ministry of Health, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq: Erbil.
Bhugra, D, Gupta, S, Schouler-Ocak, M, Graeff-Calliess, I, Deakin, NA, Qureshi, A (2014). EPA guidance mental health care of migrants. European Psychiatry
29, 107–115. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2014.01.003.
Boswall, K, Al Akash, R (2015). Personal perspectives of protracted displacement: an ethnographic insight into the isolation and coping mechanisms of Syrian women and girls living as urban refugees in northern Jordan. Intervention
Bou Khalil, R (2013). Where all and nothing is about mental health: beyond posttraumatic stress disorder for displaced Syrians. American Journal of Psychiatry
Budosan, B (2014). Mental Health and Psychosocial Report for Syrian Refugees in Kilis, Turkey. Report (July 2013–March 2014). Malteser International & International Blue Crescent: Unpublished Report.
Care Jordan (2013). Syrian Refugees in Urban Jordan. Baseline Assessment of Community-Identified Vulnerablities among Syrian Refugees Living in Irbid, Madaba, Mufraq, and Zarqa. Care Jordan: Amman.
Cartwright, K, El-Khani, A, Subryan, A, Calam, R (2015). Establishing the feasibility of assessing the mental health of children displaced by the Syrian conflict. Global Mental Health
Ciftci, A, Jones, N, Corrigan, P (2012). Mental health stigma in the muslim community. Journal of Muslim Mental Health
Davey, C, Heard, R, Lennings, C (2015). Development of the Arabic versions of the impact of events scale-revised and the posttraumatic growth inventory to assess trauma and growth in Middle Eastern refugees in Australia. Clinical Psychologist
De Jong, JT, Komproe, IH, van Ommeren, M (2003). Common mental disorders in postconflict settings. Lancet
Ellsberg, M, Jansen, HAFM, Heise, L, Watts, CH, Garcia-Moreno, C, On behalf of the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women Study Team (2008). Intimate partner violence and women's physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence: an observational study. Lancet
El Masri, R, Harvey, C, Garwoo, R (2013). Changing Gender Roles among Refugees in Lebanon. ABAAD-Resource Center for Gender Equality and OXFAM: Beirut, Lebanon.
El Sarraj, E, Punamäki, RL, Salmi, S, Summerfield, D (1996). Experiences of torture and ill-treatment and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among Palestinian political prisoners. Journal of Traumatic Stress
Gorst-Unsworth, C, Goldenberg, E (1998). Psychological sequelae of torture and organised violence suffered by refugees from Iraq. Trauma-related factors compared with social factors in exile. British Journal of Psychiatry
Hassan, G, Kirmayer, LJ, Mekki- Berrada, A, Quosh, C, el Chammay, R, Deville-Stoetzel, JB, Youssef, A, Jefee-Bahloul, H, Barkeel-Oteo, A, Coutts, A, Song, S, Ventevogel, P (2015). Culture, Context and the Mental Health and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Syrians. UNHCR: Geneva.
Help Age and Handicap International (2014). Hidden Victims of the Syrian Crisis: Disabled, Injured and Older Refugees. HelpAge International and Handicap International: London/Lyon.
Hijazi, Z, Weissbecker, I (2015). Syria Crisis: Addressing Regional Mental Health needs and Gaps in the Context of the Syria Crisis. International Medical Corps: Washington.
Holmgren, H, Søndergaard, H, Elklit, A (2003). Stress and coping in traumatised interpreters: a pilot study of refugee interpreters working for a humanitarian organisation. Intervention
IASC (2007). IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. Inter-Agency Standing Committee: Geneva.
IMC and Jordan Health Aid Society (2013). Displaced Syrians in Jordan: a Mental Health and Psychosocial Information Gathering Exercise. Analysis and Interpretations of Findings, J. IMC: Amman.
IMC and UNICEF (2014). Mental Health/ Psychosocial and Child Protection for Syrian Adolescent Refugees in Jordan. IMC & UNICEF: Amman, Jordan.
IRC (2012). I.R.C., Syrian Women & Girls: Fleeing Death, Facing Ongoing Threats and Humiliation. A Gender based Violence Rapid Assessment. Syria Refugee Populations. IRC: Beirut.
IRC (2014). Are we Listening? Acting on our Committments to Women and Girls Affected by the Syrian Conflict. IRC: New York.
James, L, Sovcik, A, Garoff, F, Abbasi, R (2014). The mental health of Syrian refugee children and adolescents. Forced Migration Review
Jefee-Bahloul, H, Moustafa, MK, Shebl, FM, Barkil-Oteo, A (2014). Pilot assessment and survey of Syrian refugees’ psychological stress and openness to referral for telepsychiatry (PASSPORT Study). Telemedicine and e-Health
Jordans, MJD, Semrau, M, Thorinicroft, G, van Ommeren, MV (2012). Role of current perceived needs in explaining the association between past trauma exposure and distress in humanitarian settings in Jordan and Nepal. British Journal of Psychiatry
Kirmayer, LJ (2012). Rethinking cultural competence. Transcultural Psychiatry
Kirmayer, LJ, Narasiah, L, Munoz, M, Rashid, M, Ryder, A, Guzder, J, Hassan, G, Pottie, K, Rousseau, C (2011). Common mental health problems in immigrants and refugees: general approach to the patient in primary care. Canadian Medical Association Journal
183. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.090292.
Lewis-Fernández, R, Krishan Aggarwal, N, Bäärnhielm, S, Rohlof, S, Kirmayer, LJ, Weiss, MJ, Jadhav, S, Hinton, L, Alarcón, RD, Bhugra, D, Groen, S, van Dijk, R, Qureshi, A, Collazos, S, Rousseau, S, Caballero, L, Ramos, M, Lu, F (2014). Culture and psychiatric evaluation: operationalizing cultural formulation for DSM-5. Psychiatry
Lewis-Fernández, R, Krishan Aggarwal, N, Hinton, L, Hinton, DE, Kirmayer, LJ (2015). DSM-5® Handbook on the Cultural Formulation Interview. American Psychiatric Association: Washington.
Makhoul, J, Nakkash, RT, El Hajj, T, Abdulrahim, S, Kanj, M, Mahfoud, J, Afifi, RA (2011). Development and validation of the Arab youth mental health scale. Community Mental Health Journal
Masterson, AR, Usta, J, Gupta, J, Ettinger, AS (2014). Assessment of reproductive health and violence against women among displaced Syrians in Lebanon. BMC Women's Health
Middle East Monitor (2013). Amidst Syrian refugees, Domestic Violence Grows. Accessed 9 October 2013
Miller, KE, Rasmussen, A (2010). War exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings: bridging the divide between trauma-focused and psychosocial frameworks. Social Science & Medicine
Miller, KE, Rasmussen, A (2014). War experiences, daily stressors, and mental health five years on: elaborations and future directions. Intervention
Mollica, RF, Cardozo, BL, Osofsky, HJ, Raphael, B, Ager, A, Salama, P (2004). Mental health in complex emergencies. Lancet
364, 2058–2067. http://mhpss.net/resource/mental-health-and-psychosocial-support-for-refugees-asylum-seekers-and-migrants-on-the-move-in-europe-2.
Momartin, S, Silove, D, Manicavasagar, V, Steel, Z (2004). Complicated grief in Bosnian refugees: associations with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry
Moussa, I (2014). Identity Crisis in the Syrian Society during the Crisis. Thesis for Executive Master in Psychosocial Support & Dialogue. IOM and Lebanese University: Beirut.
Nasir, LS, Abdul-Haq, AK (2008). Caring for Arab Patients- A Biopsychosocial Approach. Radcliffe: Oxford.
Norwegian Refugee Council (2014). The Consequences of Limited Legal Status for Syrian Refugees in Lebanon. NRC Lebanon Field Assessment Part Two: North, Bekaa and South. NRC: Lebanon.
Ouyang, H (2013). Syrian refugees and sexual violence. Lancet
Parker, S (2015). Hidden crisis: violence against Syrian female refugees. Lancet
Patel, V (2014). Rethinking mental health care: bridging the credibility gap. Intervention
Pérez-Sales, P (2012). Assessment of Trauma Experiences, Mental Health and Individual and Community Coping Resources of Refugee Syrian Population Displaced in North Bekaa (Lebanon). M.D.M. Editor: France, Spain.
Rahim, BEEA, Yagoub, O, Salih Mahfouz, M, Solan, YMH, Alsanosi, R (2012). Abuse of selected psychoactive stimulants: overview and future research trends. Life Sciences Journal
Rehberg, K (2014). Revisiting Therapeutic Governance: The Politics of Mental Health and Psychosocial Programmes in Humanitarian Settings. Working Paper 98, Refugee Studies Centre. Oxford Department of International Development: Oxford.
Research Centre at La Sagesse University and ABAAD (2013). Assessment of the Impact GBV on Male Youth and Boys among Syrian and Palestine Refugees from Syria in Lebanon. ABAAD Resource Center for Gender Equality: Beirut.
SGBV Sub-Working Group Jordan (2014). Sexual and Gender-based Violence: Syrian Refugees in Jordan. SGBV Sub-Working Group: Amman.
Shoeb, M, Weinstein, H, Mollica, R (2007). The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire: adapting a cross-cultural instrument for measuring torture, trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraqi refugees. International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Shrestha, NM, Sharma, B, van Ommeren, M, Regmi, S, Makaju, R, Komproe, I, Shrestha, GB, de Jong, JTVM (1998). Impact of torture on refugees displaced within the developing world: symptomatology among Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA
Skinner, M (2014). The impact of displacement on disabled, injured and older Syrian refugees. Forced Migration Review
Steel, Z, Silove, CT, Marmane, C, Bryant, RA, van Ommeren, M (2009). Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes among populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association
Strong, J, Varady, C, Chahda, N, Doocy, S, Burnham, G (2015). Health status and health needs of older refugees from Syria in Lebanon. Conflict Health
Thorleifsson, C (2014). Coping strategies among self-settled Syrians in Lebanon. Forced Migration Review
Tribe, R, Morrissey, J (2004). Good practice issues in working with interpreters in mental health. Intervention
UN General Assembly (2014). Protection of and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons: Situation of Internally Displaced Persons in the Syrian Arab Republic A/67/931, para 61. Accessed 15 July 2013
b). Operational Guidance for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Programming in Refugee Operations. UNHCR: Geneva.
UNHRC (2012). United Nations Human Rights Council, Oral Update of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic A/HRC/20/CRP.1, para 83 and 88. Accessed 26 June 2012
UNHRC (2014). United Nations Human Rights Council, Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, A/HRC/25/65. Accessed 12 February 2014.
UNOCHA (2014). Syria Response Plan (Summary December 2014).
UN Women (2014). ‘We just keep silent’ – Gender-Based Violence amongst Syrian Refugees in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. http://shar.es/SJZje.
Usta, J, Masterson, AR (2015). Women and health in refugee settings: the case of displaced Syrian women in Lebanon. In Gender-Based Violence (ed. Djamba, YK and Kimuna, SR), pp. 119–143. Springer: New York.
Ventevogel, P, Schinina, G, Strang, A, Gagliato, M, Hansen, LJ (2015). Mental health and Psychosocial Support for Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Migrants on the move in Europe: a Multi-Agency Guidance note, December 2015. Accessed 20 December 2015
Ventevogel, P, Van Ommeren, M, Schilperoord, M, Saxena, S (2015). Improving mental health care in humanitarian emergencies. Bulletin of World Health Organisation
Vukcevic, M, Dobric, J, Puric, D (2014). Psychological Characteristics of Asylumseekers from Syria, in Survey of the Mental Health of Asylumseekers in Serbia. UNHCR Serbia: Belgrade.
Wells, R (2014
a). Psychosocial Concerns Reported by Syrian Refugees Living in Jordan: a Systematic Review of Unpublished needs Assessments. Sidney University, Australia: Sydney.
Wells, R (2014
b). Community Readiness to Address the Mental Health Outcomes of War and Displacement among Syrian Refugees Living in Jordan. Sydney University, Australia: Sydney.
Wells, R, Wells, D, Lawsin, C (2015). Understanding psychological responses to trauma among refugees: the importance of measurement validity in cross-cultural settings. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales
WHO (2014). Syrian Arab Republic, in Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health – 2014 Edition. World Health Organisation: Geneva.
WHO (2015). Refugees, WHO, UNHCR, mhGAP Humanitarian Intervention Guide (mhGAP-HIG): Clinical Management of Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Conditions in Humanitarian Settings. WHO: Geneva.