Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Looking for adolescents' well-being: self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness

  • Gian Vittorio Caprara (a1), Patrizia Steca (a2), Maria Gerbino (a1), Marinella Paciello (a1) and Giovanni Maria Vecchio (a1)...

Summary

Aims – The present study is part of a longitudinal project aimed at identifying the personal characteristics and the developmental pathways conducive to successful adaptation from childhood to adulthood. The study examined the concurrent and longitudinal impact of self-efficacy beliefs on subjective well-being in adolescence, namely positive thinking and happiness. Positive thinking has been operationalized as the latent dimension underlying life satisfaction, self-esteem and optimism. Happiness has been operationalized as the difference between positive and negative affects, as they are experienced in a variety of daily situations. Methods – In a group of 664 Italian adolescents, a structural model positing adolescents' emotional and interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs as proximal and distal determinants of positive thinking and happiness has been tested. Results – Findings attest to the impact of affective and interpersonal-social self-efficacy beliefs on positive thinking and happiness both concurrently and longitudinally. Conclusions – Adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs to manage positive and negative emotions and interpersonal relationships contribute to promote positive expectations about the future, to mantain a high self-concept, to perceive a sense of satisfaction for the life and to experience more positive emotions.

Declaration of Interest: none.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Professor G.V. Caprara, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, 2 University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via dei Marsi 78, 00185 Rome (Italy). Fax: +39-06-4469.115 E-mail: Gianvittorio.Caprara@uniromal.it

References

Hide All
Andrews, F.M. & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social Indicators of Well-being: America's Perception of Life Quality. Plenum Press: New York.
Arnett, J.J. (2001). Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: a Cultural Approach. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Ashby, F.G., Isen, A.M. & Turken, A.U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review 106, 529550.
Aspinwall, L.G. (1998). Rethinking the role of positive affect in self-regulation. Motivation and Emotion 22, 132.
Aspinwall, L.G. (2001). Dealing with adversity: Self-regulation, coping, adaptation, and health. In Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intraindividual Processes (ed. Tesser, A. and Schwarz, N.), pp. 591614. Blackwell Publishers: Maiden, MA.
Bandura, A. (ed.) (1995). Self-efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge University Press: New York.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the Exercise of Control. Freeman: New York.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology 52, 126.
Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G.V. & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development 67, 12061222.
Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C. & Caprara, G.V. (1999). Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 258269.
Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G.V. & Pastorelli, C. (2001a). Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development 72, 187206.
Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., Pastorelli, C. & Regalia, C. (2001b). Sociocognitive self-regulatory mechanisms governing transgressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80, 125135.
Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Gerbino, M. & Pastorelli, C. (2003). Role of affective self-regulatory efficacy on diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning. Child Development 74, 769782.
Barnes, M.L. & Sternberg, R.J. (1997). A hierarchical model of love and its prediction of satisfaction in close relationships. In Satisfaction in Close Relationships (ed. Sternberg, R.L. and Hojjat, M. ), pp. 79101. Guilford: New York.
Battistich, V., Solomon, D. & Delucchi, K. (1993). Interaction processes and student outcomes in cooperative learning groups. Elementary School Journals, 1932.
Baumeister, R.F. (ed.) (1993). Self-esteem: the Puzzle of Low Self-Regard. Plenum: New York.
Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New American Library: New York.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. Guilford: New York.
Beck, A. T., Epstein, N. & Harrison, R. (1983). Cognitions, attitudes, and personality dimensions in depression. British Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 1, 116.
Bentler, P.M. (2001). EQS Structural Equations Program Manual. Multivariate Software, Inc.: Encino, CA.
Ben-Zur, H., Rappaport, B., Ammar, R. & Uretzky, G. (2000). Coping strategies, life style changes, and pessimism after open-hearth surgery. Health, Society and Work 25, 201209.
Berry, D.S. & Willigham, J.S. (1997). Affective traits, responses to conflict, and satisfaction in romantic relationships. Journal of Research in Personality 71, 796809.
Bower, J. E., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E. & Fahey, J. L. (1998). Cognitive processing, discovery of meaning, CD4 decline, and AIDS-related mortality among bereaved HIV-seropositive mean. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 66, 979986.
Bowles, T. (1999). Focusing on time orientation to explain adolescent self concept and academic achievement: Part II. Testing a model. Journal of Applied Health Behaviour 1, 18.
Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The Structure of Psychological Weil-Being. Aldine: Chicago.
Brody, J. E. (1997). Girls and puberty: the crisis years. New York Times, p. C9.
Byrne, B. (1994). Testing the factorial validity, replication, and invariance of a measuring instrument: A paradigmatic application based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research 29, 289311.
Cairns, R. & Cairns, B. (1994). Lifelines and Risks: Pathways of Youth in Our Time. Cambridge University Press: New York.
Campbell, A. (1981). The Sense of Well-Being in America: Recent Patterns and Trends. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Campbell, A., Converse, P.E. & Rodgers, W.L. (1976). The Quality of American Life: Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions. Russell Sage Foundation: New York.
Caprara, G.V. (2002). Personality Psychology: Filling the gap between basic processes and molar functioning. In Psychology at the Turn of the Millennium: Volume 2. Social, Developmental and Clinical Perspectives (ed. von Hofsten, C. and Bakman, L.), pp. 201224. Psychology Press: Brighton, UK.
Caprara, G.V. & Gerbino, M. (2001). Autoefficacia Emotiva Percepita: la capacità di regolare l'affettività negativa e di esprimere quella positiva (Affective perceived self-efficacy: the capacity to regulate negative affect and to express positive affect). In La Valutazione dell'Autoefficacia (Self-efficacy Assessment) (ed. Caprara, G.V.), pp. 3550. Edizioni Erickson: Trento.
Caprara, G.V. & Steca, P. (2005a). Self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of prosocial behavior conducive to life satisfaction across ages. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 24, 191217.
Caprara, G. V. & Steca, P. (2005b). Affective and social self-regulatory efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness. European Psychologist 4, 275286.
Caprara, G.V. & Steca, P. (in press). The contribution of self-regulatory efficacy beliefs in managing affect and family relationships to positivity and hedonic balance. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.
Caprara, G. V. & Steca, P. (submitted for publication). Conceptualization and assessment of positive thinking.
Caprara, G.V., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C. & Bandura, A. (1998). Impact of adolescents' perceived self-regulatory efficacy on familial communication and antisocial conduct. European Psychologist 3, 125132.
Caprara, G.V., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C. & Bandura, A. (1999). Autoefficacia percepita emotiva e interpersonale e buon funzionamento sociale (Affective and interpersonal perceived self-efficacy and positive social functioning). Giornale Italiano di Psicologia 4, 769789.
Caprara, G.V., Gerbino, M. & Delle Fratte, A. (2001a Autoefficacia Interpersonale (Interpersonal self-efficacy). In La Valutazione dell 'Autoefficacia (Self-Efficacy Assessment) (ed. Caprara, G.V.), pp. 87104. Edizioni Erickson: Trento.
Caprara, G.V., Regalia, C. & Scabini, E. (2001b. Autoefficacia familiare (Familiar self-efficacy). In La Valutazione dell'Autoefficacia (Self-Efficacy Assessment) (ed. Caprara, G.V.), pp. 6386. Edizioni Erickson: Trento.
Caprara, G.V., Delle Fratte, A. & Steca, P. (2002a). Determinanti personali del benessere in adolescenza: Indicatori e predittori (Personal determinants of adolescents' well-being: indicators and predictors). Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo 2, 203223.
Caprara, G. V., Regalia, C. & Bandura, A. (2002b). Longitudinal impact of perceived self regulatory efficacy on violent conduct. European Psychologist 7, 6369.
Caprara, G.V., Scabini, E. & Sgritta, G. (2003a). The long transition to adulthood. In International Perspective on Adolescence (ed. Pajares, F. and Urdan, ), p. 7199. Information Age Publishing: Greenwich, CT.
Caprara, G.V., Steca, P., Cervone, D. & Artistico, D. (2003b). The contribution of self-efficacy beliefs to dispositional shyness: On social-cognitive systems and the development of personality dispositions. Journal of Personality 71, 943970.
Caprara, G. V., Steca, P., Capanna, C. & Caprara, M. (2004a). Le determinanti personali dell'Ego-resiliency negli adolescenti (Personal determinants of adolescents' ego-resiliency). Età Evolutiva 77, 1729.
Caprara, G.V., Regalia, C., Scabini, E., Barbaranelli, C. & Bandura, A. (2004b). Assessment of filial, parental, marital, and Collective family efficacy beliefs. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 20, 247261.
Caprara, G.V., Capanna, C., Steca, P. & Padello, M. (2005a). Misura e determinanti personali della prosocialità. Un approccio sociale cognitivo (Measurement and personal determinants of prosocialness. A social-cognitive approach). Giornale Italiano di Psicologia 32, 287307.
Caprara, G.V., Pastorelli, C., Regalia, C., Scabini, E. & Bandura, A. (2005b). Impact of adolescents' filial self-efficacy on quality of family functioning and satisfaction. Journal of Research on Adolescence 15, 7197.
Carstensen, L.L., Gottman, J. M. & Levenson, R. W. (1995). Emotional behavior in long-term marriage. Psychology and Aging 10, 140149.
Carvajal, S.C., Clair, S.D., Nash, S.G. & Evans, R.I. (1998b). Relating optimism, hope and self-esteem to social influences in deterring substance use in adolescent. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 17, 443465.
Carvajal, S.C., Garner, R.L. & Evans, R.I. (1998a). Dispositional optimism as protective factor in resisting HIV exposure in sexually active inner-city minority adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 28, 21962211.
Carver, C. S. & Scheier, M. F. (2002). Optimism. In Handbook of Positive Psychology (ed. Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, J.L., pp. 231243. Oxford University Press: New York.
Carver, C.S., Pozo, C., Harris, S. D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M.F., Robinson, D.S., Ketcham, A.S., Moffat, F.L. & Clark, K.C. (1993). How coping mediates the effects of optimism and distress: A study of women with early stage breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65, 375390.
Coe, C.L. & Lubach, G.R. (2001). Social context and other psychological influences on the development of immunity. In Emotion, Social Relationships, and Health (ed. Ryff, C.D. and Singer, B.H.), pp. 243261. Oxford University Press: London.
Compas, B., Hinden, B & Gerhardt, C. (1995). Adolescent development: Pathways and processes of risk and resilience. Annual Review of Psychology 46, 265293.
Cunningham, M.R. (1988). What do you do when you're happy or blue? Mood, expectancies, and behavioral interests. Motivation and Emotion 12, 309331.
Davies, J. & Brember, I. (1999). Reading and mathematics attainments and self-esteem in years 2 and 6- an eight-year cross-sectional study. Educational Studies 25, 145157.
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin 95, 542575.
Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research 31, 103157.
Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: the science of happiness, and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist 55, 3443.
Diener, E. (2001). Subjective well-being. Address presented at the Annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, San Antonio, TX.
Diener, E. & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68, 653663.
Diener, E. & Emmons, R. A. (1984). The independence of positive and negative affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47, 11051117.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J. & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment 49, 7175.
Diener, E., Smith, H. & Fujita, F. (1995). The personality structure of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69, 130141.
Diener, E., Suh, E.M., Lucas, R.E. & Smith, H. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin 125, 276303.
Diener, E., Lucas, R. E. & Oishi, S. (2002). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In Handbook of Positive Psychology (ed. Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.J.), pp. 6373. Oxford University Press: New York.
Emmons, R.A. (1999). The Psychology of Ultimate Concerns: Motivation and Spirituality in Personality. Guilford Press: New York.
Emmons, R.A. (2003). Personal goals, life meaning, and virtue: will springs of a positive life. In Flourishing: A Positive Psychology and the Life Well-Lived (ed. Keyes, L.M. and Haidt, J.), pp. 105128. American Psychological Association: Whashington, DC.
Estrada, C.A., Isen, A.M. & Young, M.J. (1997). Positive affect facilitates integration of information and decreases anchoring in reasoning among physicians. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 72, 117135.
Field, T., Lang, C., Yando, R. & Bendell, D. (1995). Adolescents' intimacy with parents and friends. Adolescence 30, 133140.
Flammer, A. (1995). Developmental analysis of control beliefs. In Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies (ed. Bandura, A.), pp. 69113. Cambridge University Press: New York.
Fraser-Smith, N., Lesperance, F. & Talajic, M. (1995). The impact of negative emotions on prognosis following myocardial infarction: Is it more than depression? Health Psychology 14, 388398.
Fredrickson, B.L. (1998). What good are positive emotions. Review of General Psychology 2, 271299.
Fredrickson, B.L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist 56, 218226.
Fredrickson, B.L. & Branigan, C. A. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion 19, 313332.
Fredrickson, B.L. & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science 13, 172175.
Furstenberg, F.F., Eccles, J., Elder, G.H., Cook, T. & Sameroff, A. (1999). Adolescent Development in Urban Communities: How Families Manage Risk and Opportunity. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Pyszczynski, T., Rosenblatt, A., Burling, J., Lyon, D., Simon, L. & Pinel, E. (1992). Why do people need self-esteem? Converging evidence that self-esteem serves an anxiety-buffering function. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63, 913922.
Harding, S.D. (1982). Psychological well-being in Great Britain.' an evaluation of the Bradburn affect balance scale. Personality and Individual Differences 3, 167175.
Harter, S. (1993). Causes and consequences of low self esteem in children and adolescents. In Self-Esteem: The Puzzle of Low Self Regard (ed. Baumeister, R.F.), pp. 87116. Plenum: New York.
Harter, S. (1999). The Construction of Self: A Developmental Perspective. Guilford: New York.
Hendrick, S.S. & Hendrick, C. (1997). Love and satisfaction. In Satisfaction in Close Relationships (ed. Sternberg, R.J. and Hojjat, M.), pp. 5678. Guilford Press: New York.
Herman-Stahl, M. & Peterson, A.C. (1996). The protective role of coping and social resources for depressive symptoms among young adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescent 25, 733753.
Hartfield, E. & Rapson, R.L. (1993). Love, Sex, and Intimacy. Harper Collins: New York.
Hinde, R. A. (1997). Relationships: A Dialectical Perspective. Psychology Press: Howe, UK.
Isen, A.M. (1987). Positive affect, cognitive processes, and social behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 20, 203253.
Isen, A.M. (2002). A role for neuropsychology in understanding the facilitating influence of positive affect on social behavior and cognitive processes. In Handbook of Positive Psychology (ed. Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.L.), pp. 528540. Oxford University Press: New York.
Kawachi, I., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P. & Weiss, S. (1994). Symptoms of anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease. Circulation 89, 19921997.
Keltner, D. & Kring, A. (1998). Emotion, social function, and psychopatology. Review of General Psychology 2, 320342.
Kernis, M. (1995). Efficacy, Agency, and Self-Esteem. Plenum: New York.
Kling, K.C., Hide, J.S., Showers, C.J. & Buswell, B.N. (1999). Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analisys. Psychological Bulletin 12, 470500.
Lasko, D.S., Field, T.M., Gonzalez, K.P., Harding, J., Yando, R. & Bendell, D. (1996). Adolescent depressed mood and parental unhappiness. Adolescence 31, 4957.
Little, B.R. (1989). Personal projects analysis: Trivial pursuits, magnificient obsessions, and the search for coherence. In Personality Psychology: Recent Trends and Emerging Directions (ed. Buss, D.M. and Cantor, N.), pp. 1531. Springer: New York.
Lucas, R.E., Diener, E. & Suh, E.M. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71, 616628.
Lykken, D. & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science 7, 186189.
Maruta, T., Colligan, R.C., Malinchoc, M. & Offord, K.P. (2000). Optimists vs. pessimist: Survival rate medical patients over a 30-year period. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 75, 140143.
McCrae, R.R. & Costa, P.T. Jr (1994). The stability of personality: Observations and evaluations. Current Direction in Psychological Science 74, 494512.
Millstein, S., Petersen, A. & Nightingale, E. (eds.) (1993). Promoting the Health of Adolescents: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century. Oxford University Press: New York.
Myers, D.G. (1999). Close relationships and quality of life. In Well-being: The Foundations ofHedonic Psychology (ed. Kahneman, D., Diener, E. and Schwarz, N.), pp. 374391. Russell Sage Foundation: New York.
Myers, D.G. (2000). The fund, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist 55, 5667.
Myers, D.G. & Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy? Psychological Science 6, 1019.
O'Brien, S. J. & Conger, P. R. (1991). No time to look back: Approaching the finish line of life's course. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 33, 7587.
Peterson, C., Seligman, M.E.P., Yurko, K.H., Martin, L.R. & Friedman, H.S. (1998). Catastrophizing and untimely death. Psychological Science 9, 127130.
Reed, G.M., Kemeny, M.E., Taylor, S.E. & Visscher, B.R. (1999). Negative HIV-specific expectancies and AIDS-related bereavement as predictors of symptom onset in asymptomatic HIV-positive gay men. Health Psychology 13, 299307.
Reis, H.T. & Patrick, B.C. (1996). Attachment and intimacy: Component processes. In Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (ed. Higgins, E.T. and Kruglanski, A.), pp. 367389. Wiley: Chichester.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.
Rutter, M. & Smith, D. (Eds.) (1995). Psychosocial Disorders in Young People. Wiley & Sons: Chichester, UK.
Scabini, E. (1995). Psicologia Sociale della Famiglia. Bollati Boringhieri: Torino.
Scheier, M.F. & Carver, C.S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology 4, 219247.
Scheier, M.F. & Carver, C.S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and physical well-being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Journal of Personality 55, 169210.
Scheier, M.F. & Carver, C.S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research 16, 201228.
Scheier, M.F. & Carver, C.S. (2001). Adapting to cancer: The importance of hope and purpose. In Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer (ed. Baum, A. and Andersen, B.L.), pp. 1536). American Psychological Association: Washington, DC.
Scheier, M.F., Matthews, K.A. & Owens, J.F. (1989). Dispositional optimism and recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery: The beneficial effects on physical and psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, 10241040.
Scheier, M.F., Matthews, K. A., Owens, J.F., Magovern, G.J. & Carver, C.S. (1990). Dispositional optimism and recovery after 5 years from coronary artery bypass surgery. Manuscript not published.
Schimmack, U. & Diener, E. (2003). Predictive validity of explicit and implicit self-esteem for subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality 37, 100106.
Schneewind, K.A. (1995). Impact of family processes on control beliefs. In Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies (ed. Bandura, A.), pp. 114148. University of Cambridge Press: New York.
Scott-Lennox, J.A. & Scott-Lennox, R.D. (1995). Sex-race differences in social support and depression in older low-income adults. In Structural Equation Modeling: Concepts, Issues, and Applications (ed. Hoyle, R.H.), pp. 199216.: Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Seeman, T.E. (2001). How do others get under your skin: Social relationships and health. In Emotion, Social Relationships, and Health (ed. Ryff, C.D. and Singer, B.), pp. 189210. Oxford University Press: New York.
Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In Handbook of Positive Psychology (ed. Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, S.J.), pp. 39) Oxford University Press: New York.
Seligman, M.E.P. (2003). Foreword: The past and future of positive psychology. In Flourishing: a Positive Psychology and the Life Well-lived (ed. Keyes, L.M. and Haidt, J.), pp. XI-XX. American Psychological Association: Washington, DC.
Seligman, M.E.P. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology. American Psychologist 55, 514.
Sheldon, K.M. & King, L. (2001). Why positive psychology is necessary? American Psychologist 56, 216217.
Steca, P. (2004). Il Benessere Soggettivo: Componenti, Correlati e Determinanti nel Corso di Vita (Subjective Well-Being: Components, Correlates, and Determinants Across the Life Span). Ph. D. Dissertation: University of Padua, Italy.
Steinberg, L. & Morris, A. (2001). Adolescent Development. Annual Review of Psychology 52, 83140.
Sternberg, R.L. & Hojjat, M. (1997). Satisfaction in Close Relationships. Guilford: New York.
Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics (Fourth Edition). Ally and Bacon: Boston.
Tanaka, J.S. (1993). Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation models. In Testing Structural Equation Models (ed. Bollen, K.A. and Long, J.S.), pp. 1039. Sage Publications: Newbury Park.
Taylor, S.E. & Armor, D.A. (1996). Positive illusions and coping with adversity. Journal of Personality 64, 873899.
Taylor, S.E., Dickerson, S.S. & Klein, L.C. (2002). Toward a biology of social support. In Handbook of Positive Psychology (ed. Snyder, C.R. and Lopez, J.L.), pp. 556569. Oxford University Press: New York.
Tedeschi, J.T. & Norman, N. (1985). Social power, self-presentation, and the self. In The Self and Social Life (ed. Schlenker, B.R.), pp. 293322. McGraw-Hill: New York.
Veenhoven, R. (1991). Is happiness relative? Social Indicators Research 24, 134.
Watson, D. (2000). Mood and Temperament. Guilford: New York.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A. & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54, 10631070.
Watson, D., Clark, L., McIntyre, C. & Hamaker, S. (1992). Affect, personality, and social activity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63, 10111025.
Zevon, M.A. & Tellegen, A. (1982). The structure of mood change: An idiographic/nomothetic analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43, 111112.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed