Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The debate about renaming schizophrenia: a new name would not resolve the stigma

  • W. Gaebel (a1) (a2) and A. Kerst (a1) (a2)

Abstract

The concept and name of schizophrenia have been questioned in the scientific community and among various stakeholders. A name change is seen as a means and an opportunity to reduce stigmatizing beliefs and to improve mental health care. Some Asian countries have already taken the step of a name change. So far, however, the scientific community of western countries has not yet come to an agreement on any alternative name. Meeting relevant criteria for a new name, finding agreement among all involved groups and replacing the established term is a complex process. For now, the concept of schizophrenia has proven its reliability, clinical utility and validity, although schizophrenia is a stigmatised mental disorder like many others. Renaming cannot be the only answer to negative beliefs, prejudice and discrimination.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The debate about renaming schizophrenia: a new name would not resolve the stigma
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The debate about renaming schizophrenia: a new name would not resolve the stigma
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The debate about renaming schizophrenia: a new name would not resolve the stigma
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Wolfgang Gaebel, E-mail: Wolfgang.Gaebel@lvr.de

References

Hide All
Allardyce, J, Gaebel, W, Zielasek, J and van Os, J (2010) Deconstructing Psychosis Conference February (2006) – The validity of schizophrenia and alternative approaches to the classification of psychosis. In Tamminga, CA (ed.), Deconstructing Psychosis. Refining the Research Agenda for DSM-V. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, pp. 110.
American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC.
Bleuler, E (1911) Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien. Leipzig: F. Deuticke.
Ellison, N, Mason, O and Scior, K (2015) Renaming schizophrenia to reduce stigma: comparison with the case of bipolar disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry 206, 341342.
Gaebel, W (2012) Status of psychotic disorders in ICD-11. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 895898.
Gaebel, W, Riesbeck, M, Siegert, A and Zäske, H (2017) Improving treatment, prevention and rehabilitation. In Gaebel, W, Rössler, W and Sartorius, N (eds), The Stigma of Mental Illness – End of the Story? Cham: Springer, pp. 537550.
Gaebel, W, Riesbeck, M, Zielasek, J, Kerst, A, Meisenzahl-Lechner, E, Köllner, V, Rose, M, Hofmann, T, Schäfer, I, Lotzin, A, Briken, P, Klein, V, Brunner, F, Keeley, JW, Rebello, T, Andrews, HF, Reed, GM, Kostanjsek, NF, Hasan, A, Russek, P and Falkai, P (2018) Internetbasierte Untersuchungen zur diagnostischen Klassifikation und Kodierung psychischer Störungen im Vergleich von ICD-11 und ICD-10. Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie 86, 163171.
Hegarty, JD, Baldessarini, RJ, Tohen, M, Waternaux, C and Oepen, G (1994) One hundred years of schizophrenia. A meta-analysis of the outcome literature. The American Journal of Psychiatry 151, 14091416.
Henderson, S and Malhi, GS (2014) Swan song for schizophrenia? The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 48, 302305.
Keeley, JW, Reed, GM, Roberts, MC, Evans, SC, Medina-Mora, ME, Robles, R, Rebello, T, Sharan, P, Gureje, O, First, MB, Andrews, HF, Ayuso-Mateos, JL, Gaebel, W, Zielasek, J and Saxena, S (2016) Developing a science of clinical utility in diagnostic classification systems field study strategies for ICD-11 mental and behavioral disorders. The American Psychologist 71, 316.
Keshavan, MS, Nasrallah, HA and Tandon, R (2011) Schizophrenia, “just the facts”: moving ahead with the schizophrenia concept. Schizophrenia Research 127, 313.
Kraepelin, E (1896) Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch fur Studierende und Aerzte. Leipzig: Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth.
Lasalvia, A (2018) Words matter. After more than a century ‘schizophrenia’ needs rebranding. BJPsych Advances 24, 3336.
Lasalvia, A, Penta, E, Sartorius, N and Henderson, S (2015) Should the label ‘schizophrenia’ be abandoned? Schizophrenia Research 162, 276284.
Levin, T (2006) Schizophrenia should be renamed to help educate patients and the public. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry 52, 324331.
Lieberman, J and First, MB (2007) Renaming schizophrenia. Diagnosis and treatment are more important than semantics. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.) 334, 108.
Maruta, T and Matsumoto, C (2017) Stigma and the renaming of schizophrenia. In Gaebel, W, Rössler, W and Sartorius, N (eds), The Stigma of Mental Illness – End of the Story? Cham: Springer, pp. 571579.
Mirić, J, Bodatsch, M, Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E and Häussermann, P (2013) Ein Fall von Morbus Bleuler? 100 Jahre ‘Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien’. Der Nervenarzt 84, 381385.
Murray, RM (2006) Schizophrenia term use ‘invalid’. BBC News, 9 October. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/6033013.stm (Accessed 10 May 2018).
Nishimura, Y, Egami, Y, Arisawa, M and Ono, Y (2005) A study on dissemination effects of name change in family members of service users. In Ono, Y (ed.). Studies on the Effects of Renaming Psychiatric Disorders. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Tokyo, pp. 5162 (in Japanese).
Owen, MJ, Craddock, N and Jablensky, A (2010) The genetic deconstruction of psychosis. In Tamminga, CA (ed.), Deconstructing Psychosis. Refining the Research Agenda for DSM-V. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, pp. 6982.
Reed, GM, Sharan, P, Rebello, TJ, Keeley, JW, Elena Medina-Mora, M, Gureje, O, Luis Ayuso-Mateos, J, Kanba, S, Khoury, B, Kogan, CS, Krasnov, VN, Maj, M, de Jesus Mari, J, Stein, DJ, Zhao, M, Akiyama, T, Andrews, HF, Asevedo, E, Cheour, M, Domínguez-Martínez, T, El-Khoury, J, Fiorillo, A, Grenier, J, Gupta, N, Kola, L, Kulygina, M, Leal-Leturia, I, Luciano, M, Lusu, B, Nicolas, J, Martínez-López, I, Matsumoto, C, Umukoro Onofa, L, Paterniti, S, Purnima, S, Robles, R, Sahu, MK, Sibeko, G, Zhong, N, First, MB, Gaebel, W, Lovell, AM, Maruta, T, Roberts, MC and Pike, KM (2018) The ICD-11 developmental field study of reliability of diagnoses of high-burden mental disorders. Results among adult patients in mental health settings of 13 countries. World Psychiatry 17, 174186.
Schneider, K (1967) Klinische Psychopathologie. Stuttgart: Thieme.
Sheehan, L, Nieweglowski, K and Patrick, C (2017) Structures and types of stigma. In Gaebel, W, Rössler, W and Sartorius, N (eds), The Stigma of Mental Illness – End of the Story? Cham: Springer, pp. 4366.
Tamminga, CA, Pearlson, GD, Stan, AD, Gibbons, RD, Padmanabhan, J, Keshavan, M and Clementz, BA (2017) Strategies for advancing disease definition using biomarkers and genetics. The Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes. Biological Psychiatry. Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging 2, 2027.
Tandon, R, Nasrallah, HA and Keshavan, MS (2009) Schizophrenia, ‘just the facts’ 4. Clinical features and conceptualization. Schizophrenia Research 110, 123.
Tracy, N (2017) Renaming ‘mental illness’ to ‘brain disorder’ will not erase the stigma. Available at (https://www.huffingtonpost.com/natasha-tracy/mental-illness_b_4761908.html?guccounter=1) (Accessed 24 May 2018).
Tranulis, C, Lecomte, T, El-Khoury, B, Lavarenne, A and Brodeur-Côté, D (2013) Changing the name of schizophrenia. Patient perspectives and implications for DSM-V. PLoS ONE 8, e55998.
van Os, J (2009 a) A salience dysregulation syndrome. The British Journal of Psychiatry 194, 101103.
van Os, J (2009 b) ‘Salience syndrome’ replaces ‘schizophrenia’ in DSM-V and ICD-11. Psychiatry's evidence-based entry into the 21st century? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 120, 363372.
WHO (2015) WHO best practices for naming of new human infectious diseases. Available at (http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/163636/1/WHO_HSE_FOS_15.1_eng.pdf?ua=1) (Accessed 13 June 2018).
Yamaguchi, S, Mizuno, M, Ojio, Y, Sawada, U, Matsunaga, A, Ando, S and Koike, S (2017) Associations between renaming schizophrenia and stigma-related outcomes: a systematic review. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 71, 347362.

Keywords

The debate about renaming schizophrenia: a new name would not resolve the stigma

  • W. Gaebel (a1) (a2) and A. Kerst (a1) (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed