Age-specific patterns of rotavirus infection were investigated using a randomly selected and representative sample of sera from a suburban community of São Paulo, Brazil screened for class-specific antibodies to group A rotavirus. Age-serology of anti-rotavirus IgG showed primary infection predominant in young infants with a median age of around 18 months consistent with IgM serology suggesting highest rates of recent infection between ages 4 and 48 months. Anti-rotavirus serum IgA prevalence increased gradually with age. Paired samples from infants, collected 1 month apart, indicated high exposure rates with seroconversion occurring in several infants during the reported low transmission season. Between 5 and 10% of adults had elevated IgM levels indicative of recent infection and, potentially, of an important contribution adults may play to rotavirus transmission. Further understanding of the dynamics of rotavirus transmission within populations, at group and serotype level, would benefit the design and monitoring of future immunization programmes.