1.Veasy, GL, Wiedmeier, SE, Orsmond, GS, et al. Resurgence of acute rheumatic fever in the intermountain area of the United States. N Eng J Med 1987; 316: 421–6.
2.Wald, ER, Dashefsky, B, Feidt, C, Chiponis, D, Byers, C. Acute rheumatic fever in western Pennsylvania and the tristate area. Pediatrics 1987; 80: 371–4.
3.Kaplan, EL, Johnston, DR, Cleary, PP. Group A streptococcal serotypes isolated from patients and sibling contacts during the resurgence of rheumatic fever in the United States in the mid-1980's. J Infect Dis 1989; 159: 101–2.
4.Stollerman, GH. Rheumatogenic group A streptococci and the return of rheumatic fever. Adv Intern Med 1990; 35: 1–26.
5.Martin, PR, Høiby, EA. Streptococcal serogroup A epidemic in Norway, 1987–1988. Scand J Infect Dis 1988; 22: 421–9.
6.Ispahani, P, Donald, FE, Aveline, AJD. Streptococcus pyogenes: an old enemy subdued but not defeated. J Infect 1988; 16: 37–46.
7.Strömberg, A, Romanus, V, Burman, L. Outbreak of group A streptococcal bacteremia in Sweden: An epidemiologic and clinical study. J Infect Dis 1991; 164: 595–8.
8.El Kholy, A, Sorour, AH, Houser, HB, et al. A three year prospective study of streptococcal infections in a population of rural Egyptian schoolchildren. J Med Microbiol 1973; 6: 101–10.
9.Valkenburg, HA, Muller, AS, Wolters, CHL, Steenhuis, EM. Streptococci in Liberia and Nigeria. West Africa. In: Haverkorn, MJ, ed. Streptococcal disease and the community. New York: Excerpta Medical American Elsevier Co. Inc., 1974: 209–14.
10.Ogunbi, O, Lasi, Q, Lawal, SF. An epidemiological study of beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections in a Nigerian (Lagos) urban population. In: Haverkorn, MJ, ed. Streptococcal disease and the community. New York: Excerpta Medical American Elsevier Co. Inc., 1974: 282–6.
11.Lawal, SF, Odugbemi, T, Coker, AO, Solanke, EO. Persistent occurrence of beta-hemolytic streptococci in population of Lagos school children. J Trop Med Hyg 1990; 93: 417–8.
12.Halim, AM, Jacques, JK. Rheumatic heart disease in the Sudan. Br Heart J 1961; 23: 383–8.
13.Ey, J, Johnson, C. Management of cardiac disease in a paediatric cardiology clinic. Ethiop Med J 1974; 12: 125–30.
14.Hadgu, P, Parry, EHO. Ethiopian cardiovascular studies. V. Cardiac disease in children. Ethiop Med J 1968; 6: 135–40.
15.D'arbela, PG, Patel, AK, Somers, K. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease at Mulago Hospital. Kampala. Uganda: some aspects of the pattern of the disease. East Afr Med J 1974; 51: 710–13.
16.Ogunbi, O, Fadahunsi, HO, Ahmed, I, et al. An epidemiological study of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Lagos. J Epidemiol Commun Hlth 1978; 32: 68–71.
17.Sawsan, HM, El Tayeb, HMS, Wannamaker, LW, Nasr, EMM, El Salaam, EA. Clinical and laboratory observations on overt acute glomerulonephritis (APSGN) in Cairo. In; Parker, MT, ed. Pathogenic streptococci. Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Disease. Chertsey, England: Reedbooks Ltd. 1979: 131–3.
18.Abegaz, B. Pattern of cardiac diseases in an Ethiopian children's hospital. Ethiop Med J 1988; 26: 1–6.
19.Axemo, P, Freij, L, Hadgu, P, et al. Streptococcal types in impetigo and acute glomerulonephritis among children in Addis Ababa. Scand J Infect Dis 1976; 8: 161–4.
20.Committee on standards and criteria for programs of care of the council of rheumatic fever and congenital heart disease of the American Heart Association, 1965. Jones criteria (revised) for guidance in the diagnosis of rheumatic fever. Circulation 1965; 32: 664–9.
21.Johnson, DR, Kaplan, EL. Microtechnique for serum opacity factor characterization of group A streptococci adaptable to the use of human sera. J Clin Microbiol 1988; 26: 2025–30.
22.Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria. National Bacteriological Laboratory, Stockholm. 1990.
23.Glover, JA. Milroy lectures on the incidence of rheumatic disease. The incidence of acute rheumatism. Lancet 1930; i: 499–505.
24.Quinn, RW. Comprehensive review of morbidity and mortality trends for rheumatic fever, streptococcal disease, and scarlet fever: The decline of rheumatic fever. Rev Infect Dis 1989; 2: 928–53.
25.Somwang, D, Sankaburanuraksa, S, Prutsachatvuthi, S, Leetarasmme, A, Trakulosomboon, S, Shokerchareonratana, S. The beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngeal carriers in school children. Med Assoc Thailand 1989; 71: 561–5.
26.Hill, HR, Wilson, E, Caldwell, GG, Hager, D, Zimmerman, RA. Epidemic of pharyngitis due to streptococci of Lancefield group G. Lancet 1969; ii: 371–4.
27.Benjamin, J, Perriello, VA. Pharyngitis due to group C hemolytic streptococci in children. J Pediatr 1976; 89: 254–5.
28.McCue, JD. Group G streptococcal pharyngitis: analysis of an outbreak at a college. JAMA 1982; 248: 1333–6.
29.Schwartz, RH, Shulman, T. Group C and group G streptococci. Tn office isolation from children and adolescents with pharyngitis. Clin Pediatr 1986: 25: 496–502.
30.Cimolai, N, Elford, RW, Bryan, L, Arnald, C, Perger, P. Do non-group A streptococci cause endemic pharyngitis. Rev Infect Dis 1988; 10: 587–601.
31.Hayden, GF, Murphy, TF, Hendley, JO. Non group A streptococci in the pharynx: pathogens or innocent. Am J Dis Child 1989; 143: 794–7.
32.Cimoli, N, MacCulloch, L, Damm, S. The epidemiology of beta-hemolytic non-group g streptococci isolated from the throats of children over a one vear period. Epidemiol Infect 1990; 104: 119–26.
33.Gerber, MA, Randolph, MF, Martin, NJ, et al. Community wide outbreak of group G streptococcal pharyngitis. Pediatrics 1991; 87: 598–603.
34.Meier, FA, Centor, RM, Graham, L, Dalton, HP. Clinical and microbiological evidence for endemic pharyngitis among adults due to group C streptococci. Arch Intern Med 1990; 150: 825–9.
35.Tuner, JC, Hayden, GF, Kiselica, D, Lohr, J, Eishburne, CF, Murren, D. Association of group C beta-hemolytic streptococci with endemic pharyngitis among college students. JAMA 1990; 264: 2644–7.
36.Ferguson, GW, Shultz, JM, Bisno, AL. Epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever in a multiethnic, multiracial urban community: The Miami-Dade county experience. J Infect Dis 1991; 164: 720–5.
37.Maekawa, S, Fukuda, K, Yamauehi, T, Yamaguchi, T, Takahashi, K, Sugawa, K. Follow-up study of pharyngeal carriers of beta-hemolytic streptococci among school children in Sapporo city during a period of 2 years and 5 months. J Clin Microbiol 1981: 13: 1007–22.
38.Hoffmann, S. The throat carrier rate of group A and other beta-hemolytic streptococci among patients in general practice. Acta Path Microbiol Immunol Scand Sect B 1985; 93: 347–51.
39.Martin, DR. Streptococcal infections. Rheumatogenic streptococci reconsidered. New Zealand Med J 1988; 101: 394–6.
40.Taplin, D, Lansdell, L, Allen, A, Rodriguez, R, Cortes, A. Prevalence of streptococcal pyoderma in relation to climate and hygiene. Lancet 1973: i: 501–3.
41.Potter, EV, Svartman, M, Burt, EG, Finklea, JF, Poon-King, T, Earle, DP. Relationship of acute rheumatic fever to acute glomerulonephritis in Trinidad. J Infect Dis 1972; 125: 619–25.
42.Potter, EV, Svartman, M, Mohammed, I, Cox, R, Poon-King, T, Earle, DP. Tropical acute rheumatic fever and associated streptococcal infections compared with concurrent acute glomerulonephritis. J Pediatr 1978; 92: 325–33.
43.Jelinkovà, J, Rotta, J, Duben, J. Long term study of the prevalence of different groups of streptococci. In: Haverkorn, MJ, ed. Streptococcal disease and the community. New York: Excerpta Medical American Elsevier Co. Inc., 1972: 198–203.
44.Maruyama, S, Yoshioka, H, Fuiita, K, Takimoto, M, Satake, Y. Sensitivity of group A streptococci to antibiotics. Am J Dis Child 1979; 133: 1143–5.
45.Holmström, L, Nyman, B, Rosengren, M, Wallander, S, Ripa, T. Outbreaks of infections with erythromycin-resistant group A streptococci in child day care centers. Scand J Infect Dis 1990: 22: 179–85.
46.Seppälä, H, Nissinen, A, Järvinen, H, et al. Resistance to erythromycin in group A streptococci. New Eng J Med 1992; 326: 292–7.
47.Forsgren, A, Walder, M. Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococci, group A streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus: Sensitivity of outpatient strains to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Scand J Infect Dis 1982; 14: 39–41.
48.Railings, I, Bengtsson, S, Christensen, P, Holm, SE, Lind, L, Kalin, M. Antibiotic sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae. Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pyogenes, and Branhamella catarrhalis isolated from upper respiratory tract infection in Sweden. Scand J Infect Uis 1983; 39 (Suppl): 100–5.
49.Gedebou, M, Tassew, A, Azene, G. Frequency and resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from surgical patients in teaching hospital in Addis Ababa. Trop Geograph Med 1983; 35: 133–8.
50.Tewodros, W, Gedebou, M. Nasal carrier rates and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospital and non-hospital populations, Addis Ababa. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1984; 78: 314–18.
51.Strömberg, A, Schwan, A, Cars, O. Bacteriological and serological aspects of group A streptococcal pharvngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci. Euro J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1988; 7: 172–4.
52.Sanders, E. Bacterial interference. I. Its occurrence among the respiratory tract flora and characterization of inhibition of group A streptococci by viridans streptococci. J Infect Dis 1969; 120: 698–707.
53.Holm, SE, Grahn, E. Bacterial interference in streptococcal tonsillitis. Scand J Infect Dis. Supp. 1983; 39: 73–8.
54.Grahn, E, Holm, SE. Bacterial interference in the thorax flora during a streptococcal tonsillitis outbreak in an apartment house area. Zbl Bakt Hyg A 1983; 256: 72–9.
55.Tagg, JR, Dajani, AS, Wannamaker, LW, Gray, ED. Group A streptococcal bacteriocin; production, purification and mode of action. J Exp Med 1973; 138: 1168–83.
56.Bisno, AL, Pearce, IA, Wall, HP, Moody, MD, Stollerman, GH. Contrasting epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. Nature of the antecedent streptococcal infection. N Eng J Med 1970; 283: 561–5.