1.Bartlett, JG. Clostridium difficile-associated enteric disease. Current Infectious Disease Reports 2002; 4: 477–483.
2.McDonald, LC, Owings, M and Jernigan, DB. Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996–2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 409–415.
3.Drudy, D, et al. Human antibody response to surface layer proteins in Clostridium difficile infection. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 2004; 41: 237–242.
4.Pepin, J, et al. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: a changing pattern of disease severity. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004; 171: 466–472.
5.Warny, M, et al. Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe. Lancet 2005; 366: 1079–1084.
6.Loo, VG, et al. A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 353: 2442–2449.
7.Kuijper, EJ, et al. Update of Clostridium difficile-associated disease due to PCR ribotype 027 in Europe. Eurosurveillance 2007; 12: E1–E2.
8.Asha, NJ, Tompkins, D and Wilcox, MH. Comparative analysis of prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-associated diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2006; 44: 2785–2791.
9.Barbut, F and Petit, JC. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated infections. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2001; 7: 405–410.
10.Noren, T, et al. Molecular epidemiology of hospital-associated and community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection in a Swedish county. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2004; 42: 3635–3643.
11.Raveh, D, et al. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile toxin-positive nosocomial diarrhoea. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2006; 28: 231–237.
12.Dial, S, et al. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease defined by prescription for oral vancomycin therapy. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2006; 175: 745–748.
13.Dial, S, et al. Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 2005; 294: 2989–2995.
14.Schwaber, MJ, et al. Factors associated with nosocomial diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated disease on the adult wards of an urban tertiary care hospital. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2000; 19: 9–15.
15.Barbut, F, et al. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. A French multicenter study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1996; 156: 1449–1454.
16.Bartlett, JG. Clinical practice. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea. New England Journal of Medicine 2002; 346: 334–339.
17.Pantosti, A, et al. Immunoblot analysis of serum immunoglobulin G response to surface proteins of Clostridium difficile in patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1989; 27: 2594–2597.
18.Warny, M, et al. Human antibody response to Clostridium difficile toxin A in relation to clinical course of infection. Infection & Immunity 1994; 62: 384–389.
19.Viscidi, R, et al. Serum antibody response to toxins A and B of Clostridium difficile. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1983; 148: 93–100.
20.Delmee, M, Homel, M and Wauters, G. Serogrouping of Clostridium difficile strains by slide agglutination. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1985; 21: 323–327.
21.Delmee, M, Mackey, T and Hamitou, A. Evaluation of a new commercial Clostridium difficile toxin A enzyme immunoassay using diarrhoeal stools. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1992; 11: 246–249.
22.Nielsen, NH, Dirksen, A and Madsen, F. Can subjects with a positive allergen skin test be selected by a short questionnaire? The Glostrup Allergy Study, Denmark. Allergy 1993; 48: 319–326.
23.Linneberg, A, et al. Smoking and the development of allergic sensitization to aeroallergens in adults: a prospective population-based study. The Copenhagen Allergy Study. Allergy 2001; 56: 328–332.
24.Kyne, L, et al. Asymptomatic carriage of Clostridium difficile and serum levels of IgG antibody against toxin A. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 390–397.
25.Kyne, L, et al. Association between antibody response to toxin A and protection against recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Lancet 2001; 357: 189–193.
26.Shim, JK, et al. Primary symptomless colonisation by Clostridium difficile and decreased risk of subsequent diarrhoea. Lancet 1998; 351: 633–636.
27.Vesta, KS, et al. Specific risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a prospective, multicenter, case control evaluation. American Journal of Infection Control 2005; 33: 469–472.
28.Hsu, MS, et al. Prevalence and clinical features of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a tertiary hospital in northern Taiwan. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection 2006; 39: 242–248.
29.Karlstrom, O, et al. A prospective nationwide study of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in Sweden. The Swedish C. difficile Study Group. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1998; 26: 141–145.