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Epidemiology, molecular characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Madrid, Spain, in 2016

  • M. D. Guerrero-Torres (a1), M. B. Menéndez (a2), C. S. Guerras (a2), E. Tello (a2), J. Ballesteros (a2), P. Clavo (a2), T. Puerta (a2), M. Vera (a2), O. Ayerdi (a2), J. C. Carrio (a2), I. Mozo (a2), J. Del Romero (a2), J. A. Vázquez (a1) and R. Abad (a1)...

Abstract

With the aim to elucidate gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR)–risk factors, we undertook a retrospective analysis of the molecular epidemiology and AMR of 104 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical samples (urethra, rectum, pharynx and cervix) of 94 individuals attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Madrid (Spain) from July to October 2016, and explored potential links with socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical factors of patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-tests, and isolates were characterised by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. Penicillin resistance was recorded for 15.4% of isolates, and most were susceptible to tetracycline, cefixime and azithromycin; a high incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance (~40%) was found. Isolates were grouped into 51 different sequence types (STs) and 10 genogroups (G), with G2400, ST5441, ST2318, ST12547 and G2992 being the most prevalent. A significant association (P = 0.015) was evident between HIV-positive MSM individuals and having a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain. Likewise, a strong association (P = 0.047) was found between patient age of MSM and carriage of isolates expressing decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. A decrease in the incidence of AMR gonococcal strains and a change in the strain populations previously reported from other parts of Spain were observed. Of note, the prevalent multi-drug resistant genogroup G1407 was represented by only three strains in our study, while the pan-susceptible clones such as ST5441, and ST2318, associated with extragenital body sites were the most prevalent.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: M. D. Guerrero-Torres, E-mail: maguetor@gmail.com

Footnotes

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Present address: Microbiology Service of Consorci del Laboratori Intercomarcal de l'Alt Penedès, l'Anoia i el Garraf, Vilafranca del Penedès, Spain.

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References

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Epidemiology, molecular characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Madrid, Spain, in 2016

  • M. D. Guerrero-Torres (a1), M. B. Menéndez (a2), C. S. Guerras (a2), E. Tello (a2), J. Ballesteros (a2), P. Clavo (a2), T. Puerta (a2), M. Vera (a2), O. Ayerdi (a2), J. C. Carrio (a2), I. Mozo (a2), J. Del Romero (a2), J. A. Vázquez (a1) and R. Abad (a1)...

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