The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), an increasing number of citizens and foresters, and the vast majority of environmentalists, must surely realize that most current use of tropical moist forest is unsustainable. The environmental services of tropical forest, and the biodiversity which it harbours — the world's richest source — is being lost so rapidly that consumer boycotts and other trade constraints aim to reduce the rate of irreversible damage but have so far proved little-effective. On one hand, tropical moist deforestation benefits exceedingly few people, and then only ephemerally. On the other hand, such deforestation permanently impoverishes, deracinates, or sickens, millions of people, impairs local or global environmental services, and exacerbates global environmental risks. The World Resources Institute ranks logging as one of the top causes leading to deforestation.