Bermuda's caves have proven to be extremely valuable from the scientific, economic, and recreational, viewpoints. Significant studies in geology, palaeontology, and biology, have been conducted in these caves, which are also an important asset as tourist attractions in a country whose economy is almost wholly dependent upon tourism. Caves and other karst landforms contribute much to the scenic beauty of Bermuda. However, a number of these caves have been destroyed or severely damaged by Man. The four primary threats to Bermuda's caves have been (1) filling and quarrying activities, (2) water pollution, (3) dumping and littering, and (4) vandalism.