Abbot, J.I. & Mace, R. (1999) Managing protected woodlands: Fuelwood collection and law enforcement in Lake Malawi National Park. Conservation Biology 13: 418–421.
Adams, W.M. & Infield, M. (2003) Who is on the gorilla's payrole? Claims on tourist revenue from a Ugandan National Park. World Development 31: 177–190.
Adams, W.M., Aveling, R., Brockington, D., Dickson, B., Elliot, J., Hutton, J., Roe, D., Vira, B. & Wolmer, W. (2004) Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty. Science 306: 1146–1149.
Adams, W. & Hulme, D. (2001) Changing narratives, policies and practices in African conservation. In: African Wildlife and Livelihoods: The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation, ed. Hulme, D. & Murphree, M., pp. 9–23. Oxford, UK: James Currey Ltd.
Ahrends, A., Burgess, N.D., Milledge, S.A., Bulling, M.T., Fisher, B., Smart, J.C., Clarke, G.P., Mhoro, B.E. & Lewis, S.L. (2010) Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 14556–14561.
Anselin, L. (1988) Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
Archibald, K. & Naughton-Treves, L. (2001) Tourism revenue-sharing around national parks in western Uganda: early efforts to identify and reward local communities. Environmental Conservation 28: 135–149.
Baranga, D. (2007) Observations on resource use in Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 45: 2–6.
Barnes, D.F., Openshaw, K., Smith, K.R. & Van Der Plas, R. (1994) What makes people cook with improved biomass stoves? A comparative international review of stove programs. World Bank Technical Paper 242, Energy Series. Washington DC: World Bank.
Barrett, C.B. & Arcese, P. (1995) Are Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) sustainable? On the conservation of large mammals in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development 23: 1073–1084.
Barrow, E. & Murphree, M. (2001) Community conservation: from concept to practice. In: African Wildlife and Livelihoods; The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation, ed. Hulme, D. & Murphee, M., pp. 24–37. Cape Town, South Africa: David Philip Publishers (Pty) Ltd.
Barve, N., Kiran, M.C., Vanaraj, G., Aravind, N.A., Rao, D., Uma Shaanker, R., Ganeshaiah, K.N. & Poulsen, J.G. (2005) Measuring and mapping threats to a wildlife sanctuary in Southern India. Conservation Biology 19: 122–130.
Blair, E., Sudman, S., Bradburn, N.M. & Stocking, C. (1977) How to ask questions about drinking and sex: response effects in measuring consumer behavior. Journal of Marketing Research 14: 316–321.
Bleher, B., Uster, D. & Bergsdorf, T. (2006) Assessment of threat status and management effectiveness in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1159–1177.
Brockington, D. (2002) Fortress Conservation: The Preservation of the Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania. Oxford, UK: James Currey.
Brockington, D. & Igoe, J. (2006) Evictions for conservation: a global overview. Conservation and Society 4: 424–470.
Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E., Rice, R.E. & da Fonseca, G.A. (2001) Effectiveness of parks in protecting biodiversity. Science 291: 125–128.
Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Cordeiro, N.J., Fjeldsa, J., Kuper, W., Rahbek, C., Sanderson, E.W., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Sommer, J.H. & Williams, P.H. (2007) Correlations among species distributions, human density and human infrastructure across high biodiversity tropical mountains of Africa. Biological Conservation 134: 164–177.
Buscher, B. & Wolmer, W. (2007) The politics of engagement between biodiversity conservation and the social sciences. Conservation and Society 5: 1–21.
Cernea, M.M. & Schmidt-Soltau, K. (2006) Poverty risks and national parks: policy issues in conservation and resettlement. World Development 34: 1808–1830.
Chapman, C.A. & Chapman, L.J. (1999) Forest restoration in abandoned agricultural land: a case study from East Africa. Conservation Biology 13: 1301–1311.
Chapman, C.A. & Lambert, J.E. (2000) Habitat alteration and the conservation of African primates: case study of Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 50: 169–185.
Chapman, C.A., Lawes, M.J. & Eeley, H.A. (2006) What hope for African primate diversity? African Journal of Ecology 44: 116–133.
Chhetri, P., Mugisha, A. & White, S. (2003) Community resources use in Kibale and Mt Elgon National Parks, Uganda. Parks 13: 28–49.
Child, B. (2004) Parks in Transition: Biodiversity, Rural Development and The Bottom Line. London, UK: Earthscan.
Dovie, D.B., Witkowski, E.T. & Shackleton, C.M. (2004) The fuelwood crisis in southern Africa: relating fuelwood use to livelihoods in a rural village. GeoJournal 60: 123–133.
Emerton, L. (1999) Balancing the Opportunity Costs of Wildlife Conservation for Communities around Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. London, UK: International Institute for Environment and Development.
Feeney, P. (1998) Accountable Aid: Local Participation in Major Projects. Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
Gadd, M.E. (2005) Conservation outside of parks: attitudes of local people in Laikipia, Kenya. Environmental Conservation 32: 50–63.
Gavin, M.C., Solomon, J.N. & Blank, S.G. (2010) Measuring and monitoring illegal use of natural resources. Conservation Biology 24: 89–100.
Gillingham, S. & Lee, P.C. (1999) The impact of wildlife-related benefits on the conservation attitudes of local people around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation 26: 218–228.
Griffith, D.A. & Layne, L.J. (1999) A Casebook for Spatial Statistical Data Analysis: A Compilation of Analyses of Different Thematic Data Sets. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
Haining, R. (2003) Spatial Data Analysis: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hartter, J. (2009) Attitudes of rural communities towards wetlands and forest fragments around Kibale National Park, Uganda. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14: 433–447.
Hartter, J. & Goldman, A. (2011) Local responses to a forest park in western Uganda: alternative narrative on fortress conservation. Oryx 45: 60–68.
Hartter, J. & Ryan, S.J. (2010) Top-down or bottom-up?Decentralization, natural resource management, and usufruct rights in the forests and wetlands of western Uganda. Land Use Policy 27: 815–826.
Holmes, G. (2007) Protection, politics and protest: understanding resistance to conservation. Conservation and Society 5: 184–201.
Hutton, J., Adams, W.M. & Murombedzi, J.C. (2005) Back to the barriers? Changing narratives in biodiversity conservation. Forum for Development Studies 2: 341–370.
Infield, M. (1988) Attitudes of a rural community towards conservation and a local conservation area in Natal, South Africa. Biological Conservation 45: 21–46.
Infield, M., Naamara, A. & Marquardt, M. (1993) The Socioeconomy, Natural Resource Use, and Attitudes Towards the Park of Communities Living In and Around Lake Mburo National Park: Report of a Rapid Rural Appraisal. Kampala, Uganda: Makerere Institute of Social Research and Land Tenure Center.
Kideghesho, J.R., Roskaft, E. & Kaltenborn, B.P. (2007) Factors influencing conservation attitudes of local people in Western Serengeti, Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 2213–2230.
Lebamba, J., Ngomanda, A., Vincens, A., Jolly, D., Favier, C., Elenga, H. & Bentaleb, I. (2009) Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types. Climate of the Past 5: 403–429.
Mbile, P., Vabi, M., Meboka, M., Okon, D., Arrey-Mbo, J., Nkongho, F. & Ebong, E. (2005) Linking management and livelihood in environmental conservation: case of the Korup National Park, Cameroon. Journal of Environmental Management 76: 1–13.
McNeely, J.A. (1993) Economic incentives for conserving biodiversity: lessons for Africa. AMBIO 22: 144–150.
Mugisha, A. (2002) Evaluation of Community-based Conservation Approaches: Management of Protected Areas in Uganda. Gainsville, FL, USA: University of Florida.
Naughton-Treves, L. (1998) Predicting patterns of crop damage by wildlife around Kibale National Park, Uganda. Conservation Biology 12: 156–168.
Naughton-Treves, L. (1999) Whose animals? A history of property rights to wildlife in Toro, Western Uganda. Land Degradation and Development 10: 311–328.
Naughton-Treves, L., Buck Holland, M. & Brandon, K. (2005) The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Annual Review of Environmental Resources 30: 219–252.
Naughton-Treves, L., Kammen, D.M. & Chapman, C. (2007) Burning biodiversity: woody biomass used by commercial and subsistance groups in western Uganda's forests. Biological Conservation 134: 232–241.
Neumann, R.P. (1998) Impossing Wilderness: Struggles over Livelihood and Nature Preservation in Africa. Los Angeles, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Oates, J.F. (1999) Myth and Reality in the Rain Forest; How Conservation Strategies are Failing in West Africa. Los Angeles, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Olupot, W., Barigyira, R. & Chapman, C.A. (2009) The status of anthropogenic threat at the people-park interface of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Environmental Conservation 36: 41–50.
Omeja, P.A., Chapman, C.A. & Obua, J. (2009) Enrichment planting does not improve tree restoration when compared with natural regeneration in a former pine plantation in Kibale National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 47: 650–657.
Redford, K.H., Robinson, J.G. & Adams, W.M. (2006) Parks as shibboleths. Conservation Biology 20: 1–2.
Robbins, P., McSweeney, K., Waite, T. & Rice, J. (2006) Even conservation rules are made to be broken: Implications for biodiversity. Environmental Management 37: 162–169.
Scoones, I. (1995) Investigating difference: applications of wealth ranking and household survey approaches among farming households in Southern Zimbabwe. Development and Change 26: 67–88.
Solomon, J., Jacobson, S.K., Wald, K.D. & Gavin, M. (2007) Estimating illegal resource use at a Ugandan park with the randomized response technique. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 12: 75–88.
St John, F.A., Edwards-Jones, G., Gibbons, J.M. & Jones, J.P. (2010) Testing novel methods for assessing rule breaking in conservation. Biological Conservation 143: 1025–1030.
Stocking, M. & Perkin, S. (1992) Conservation-with-development: an application of the concept in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 17: 337–349.
Struhsaker, T.T. (1997) Ecology of an African Rain Forest. Gainsville, FL, USA: University of Florida Press.
Terborgh, J. & van Schaik, C. (2002) Why the world needs parks. In: Making Parks Work: Strategies for Preserving Tropical Nature, ed. Terborgh, J., van Schaik, C., Davenport, L. & Rao, M., pp. 3–14. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Treves, A. & Karanth, K.U. (2003) Human-carnivore conflict: local solutions with global applications. Conservation Biology 17: 1489–1490.
Wallmo, K. & Jacobson, S.K. (1998) A social and environmental evaluation of fuel-efficient cook-stoves and conservation in Uganda. Environmental Conservation 25: 99–108.
West, A.G., Midgley, J.J. & Bond, W.J. (2000) Regeneration failure and the potential importance of human disturbance in a subtropical forest. Applied Vegetation Science 3: 223–232.
Zanne, A.E. & Chapman, C.A. (2005) Diversity of woody species in forest, treefall gaps, and edge in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Plant Ecology 178: 121–139.