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Optimization of net returns from wildlife consumptive and non-consumptive uses by game reserve management



Landowners and game reserve managers are often faced with the decision whether to undertake consumptive (such as hunting) and/or non-consumptive (such as tourism) use of wildlife resources on their properties. Here a theoretical model was used to examine cases where the game reserve management allocated the amount of land devoted to hunting (trophy hunting) and tourism, based on three scenarios: (1) hunting is separated from tourism but wildlife is shared; (2) hunting and tourism co-exist; and (3) hunting and tourism are separated by a fence. The consumptive and non-consumptive uses are not mutually exclusive; careful planning is needed to ensure that multiple management objectives can be met. Further, the analysis indicates that the two uses may be undertaken in the same area. Whether they are spatially, or temporally separated depends on the magnitude of the consumptive use. When consumptive use is not dominant, the two are compatible in the same shared area, provided the wildlife population is sufficiently large.


Corresponding author

*Correspondence: Emmanuel Mwakiwa, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe, PO Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe Tel: +263 772 414 303 e-mail:


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