Skip to main content Accessibility help

Evaluating sustainability of fisheries bycatch mortality for marine megafauna: a review of conservation reference points for data-limited populations

  • J. E. MOORE (a1), K. A. CURTIS (a2), R. L. LEWISON (a3), P. W. DILLINGHAM (a4), J. M. COPE (a5), S. V. FORDHAM (a6), S. S. HEPPELL (a7), S. A. PARDO (a8), C. A. SIMPFENDORFER (a9), G. N. TUCK (a10) and S. ZHOU (a11)...


Fisheries bycatch threatens populations of marine megafauna such as marine mammals, turtles, seabirds, sharks and rays, but fisheries impacts on non-target populations are often difficult to assess due to factors such as data limitation, poorly defined management objectives and lack of quantitative bycatch reduction targets. Limit reference points can be used to address these issues and thereby facilitate adoption and implementation of mitigation efforts. Reference points based on catch data and life history analysis can identify sustainability limits for bycatch with respect to defined population goals even when data are quite limited. This can expedite assessments for large numbers of species and enable prioritization of management actions based on mitigation urgency and efficacy. This paper reviews limit reference point estimators for marine megafauna bycatch, with the aim of highlighting their utility in fisheries management and promoting best practices for use. Different estimators share a common basic structure that can be flexibly applied to different contexts depending on species life history and available data types. Information on demographic vital rates and abundance is required; of these, abundance is the most data-dependent and thus most limiting factor for application. There are different approaches for handling management risk stemming from uncertainty in reference point and bycatch estimates. Risk tolerance can be incorporated explicitly into the reference point estimator itself, or probability distributions may be used to describe uncertainties in bycatch and reference point estimates, and risk tolerance may guide how those are factored into the management process. Either approach requires simulation-based performance testing such as management strategy evaluation to ensure that management objectives can be achieved. Factoring potential sources of bias into such evaluations is critical. This paper reviews the technical, operational, and political challenges to widespread application of reference points for management of marine megafauna bycatch, while emphasizing the importance of developing assessment frameworks that can facilitate sustainable fishing practices.


Corresponding author

*Correspondence: Dr Jeff Moore Tel: +1 858 546 7161 e-mail:


Hide All
Ames, R.T., Leaman, B.M. & Ames, K.L. (2007) Evaluation of video technology for monitoring of multispecies longline catches. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 27: 955964.
Andresen, S. (2002) The International Whaling Commission (IWC): more failure than success? In: Environmental Regime Effectiveness: Confronting Theory With Evidence, ed. Miles, E.L., Underdal, A., Andresen, S., Wettestad, J., Skjærseth, J.B. & Carlin, E.M., pp. 379404. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press.
Arrizabalaga, H., de Bruyn, P., Diaz, G.A., Murua, H., Chavance, P., de Molina, A.D., Gaertner, D., Ariz, J., Ruiz, J. & Kell, L.T. (2011) Productivity and susceptibility analysis for species caught in Atlantic tuna fisheries. Aquatic Living Resources 24: 112.
Berkson, J., Barbieri, L., Cadrin, S., Cass-Calay, S.L., Crone, P., Dorn, M., Friess, C., Kobayashi, D., Miller, T.J., Patrick, W.S., Pautzke, S., Ralston, S. & Trianni, M. (2011) Calculating acceptable biological catch for stocks that have reliable catch data only (only reliable catch stocks – ORCS). NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-616, National Marine Fisheries Service, Miami, FL, USA: 56 pp. [www document]. URL
Betsill, M.M. (2008) Reflections on the analytical framework and NGO diplomacy. In: NGO Diplomacy: The Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Environmental Organizations, ed. Betsill, M.M. & Corell, E., pp. 119149. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press.
Bisack, K.D. & Sutinen, J.G. (2006) Harbor porpoise bycatch: ITQs or time/area closures in the New England gillnet fishery. Land Economics 82: 85102.
Brodziak, J. & Legault, C.M. (2005) Model averaging to estimate rebuilding targets for overfished stocks. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 544562.
Brooks, E.N., Powers, J.E. & Cortés, E. (2010) Analytical reference points for age-structured models: application to data-poor fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67: 165175.
Brothers, N., Duckworth, A.R., Safina, C. & Gilman, E.L. (2010) Seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries is grossly underestimated when using only haul data. PLoS ONE 5: e12491.
Bunnefeld, N., Hoshino, E. & Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Management strategy evaluation: a powerful tool for conservation? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 441447.
Butterworth, D.S., Bentley, N., De Oliveira, J.A.A., Donovan, G.P., Kell, L.T., Parma, A.M., Punt, A.E., Sainsbury, K.J., Smith, A.D.M. & Stokes, T.K. (2010) Purported flaws in management strategy evaluation: basic problems or misinterpretations? ICES Journal of Marine Science 67: 567574.
Butterworth, D.S. & Punt, A.E. (1999). Experiences in the evaluation and implementation of management procedures. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56: 985998.
Caddy, J.F. & Mahon, R. (1995) Reference points for fisheries management. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 347. FAO, Rome, Italy: 83 pp.
Cardinale, M., Bartolino, V., Llope, M., Maiorano, L., Sköld, M. & Hagberg, J. (2011) Historical spatial baselines in conservation and management of marine resources. Fish and Fisheries 12: 289298.
Chen, S.B. & Watanbe, S. (1989) Age dependence of natural mortality coefficient in fish population dynamics. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55: 205208.
Cooke, J.G. (1999) Improvement of fishery-management advice through simulation testing of harvest algorithms. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56: 797810.
Cooke, J., Leaper, R., Wade, P, Lavigne, D. & Taylor, B. (2012) Management rules for marine mammal populations: a response to Lonergan. Marine Policy 36: 389392.
Cope, J.M. (2013) Implementing a statistical catch-at-age model (Stock Synthesis) as a tool for deriving overfishing limits in data-limited situations. Fisheries Research 142: 314.
Cope, J.M., DeVore, J., Dick, E.J., Ames, K., Budrick, J., Erickson, D., Grebel, J., Hanshew, G., Jones, R., Mattes, L., Niles, C. & Williams, S. (2011) An approach to defining species complexes for US west coast groundfishes using vulnerabilities and ecological distributions. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 31: 589604.
Cortés, E. (2002) Incorporating uncertainty into demographic modeling: application to shark populations and their conservation. Conservation Biology 16: 10481062.
Cortés, E., Arocha, F., Beerkircher, L., Carvalho, F., Domingo, A., Heupel, M., Holtzhausen, H., Santos, M.N., Ribera, M. & Simpfendorder, C. (2009) Ecological risk assessments of pelagic sharks caught in Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries. Aquatic Living Resources 22: 110.
Cortés, E., Brooks, E.N. & Gedamke, T. (2012) Population dynamics, demography, and stock assessment. In: Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives, Second edition, ed. Carrier, J.C., Musick, J.A. & Heithaus, M.R., pp. 453–86. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Cox, T.M., Lewison, R.L., Zydelis, R., Crowder, L.B., Safina, C. & Read, A.J. (2007) Comparing effectiveness of experimental and implemented bycatch reduction measures: the ideal and the real. Conservation Biology 21: 11551164.
Curtis, K.A. & Moore, J.E. (2013) Calculating reference points for anthropogenic mortality of marine turtles. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems doi 10.1802/aqc.2308 (in press).
Daan, N. (2005) An afterthought: ecosystem metrics and pressure indicators. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62: 612613.
de Oliveira, J.A.A., Kell, L.T., Punt, A.E., Roel, B.A. & Butterworth, D.S. (2009) Managing without best predictions: the Management Strategy Evaluation framework. In: Advances in Fisheries Science: 50 Years on from Beverton and Holt, ed. Payne, A., Cotter, J. & Potter, T., pp. 104–34. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Dichmont, C.M., Deng, A., Punt, A.E., Ellis, N., Venables, W.N., Kompas, T., Ye, Y., Zhou, S. & Bishop, J. (2008) Beyond biological performance measures in management strategy evaluation: bringing in economics and the effects of trawling on the benthos. Fisheries Research 94: 238250.
Dick, E.J. & MacCall, A.D. (2011) Depletion-based stock reduction analysis: a catch-based method for determining sustainable yields for data-poor fish stocks. Fisheries Research 110: 331341.
Dietrich, K.S., Cornish, V.R., Rivera, K.S. & Conant, T.A. (2007) Best practices for the collection of longline data to facilitate research and analysis to reduce bycatch of protected species: report of a workshop held at the International Fisheries Observer Conference, Sydney, Australia, November 8, 2004. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-35, 88 pp. [www document]. URL
Dillingham, P.W. (2010) Generation time and the maximum growth rate for populations with age-specific fecundities and unknown juvenile survival. Ecological Modelling 221: 895899.
Dillingham, P.W. & Fletcher, D. (2008) Estimating the ability of birds to sustain additional human-caused mortalities using a simple decision rule and allometric relationships. Biological Conservation 141: 17831792.
Dillingham, P.W. & Fletcher, D. (2011) Potential biological removal of albatrosses and petrels with minimal demographic information. Biological Conservation 144: 18851894.
Dinmore, T.A., Duplisea, D.E., Rackham, B.D., Maxwell, D.L. & Jennings, S. (2003) Impact of a large-scale area closure on patterns of fishing disturbance and the consequences for benthic communities. ICES Journal of Marine Science 60: 371380.
Dunn, D.C., Boustany, A.M. & Halpin, P.N. (2011) Spatial-temporal management of fisheries to reduce by-catch and increase fishing selectivity. Fish and Fisheries 12: 110119.
FAO (1995) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy [www document]. URL
FAO (2010) Report of the Technical Consultation to Develop International Guidelines on Bycatch Management and Reduction of Discards. Rome, 6–10 December 2010. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report No. 957. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy [www document]. URL
Fletcher, D., MacKenzie, D. & Dillingham, P. (2008) Modelling of impacts of fishing-related mortality on New Zealand seabird populations. Report prepared for the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries, Project ENV2004/05, December 2008. Ministry for Primary Industries, Government of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand.
Faunce, C.H. & Barbeaux, S.J. (2011) The frequency and quantity of Alaskan groundfish catcher-vessel landings made with and without an observer. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 17571763.
Forrest, R.E. & Walters, C.J. (2009) Estimating thresholds to optimal harvest rate for long-live, low-fecundity sharks accounting for selectivity and density dependence in recruitment. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66: 20622080.
Fowler, C.W. (1981) Density dependence as related to life history strategy. Ecology 62: 602610.
Fowler, C.W. (1988) Population dynamics as related to rate of increase per generation. Evolutionary Ecology 2: 197204.
Frisk, M.G., Miller, T.J. & Fogarty, M.J. (2001) Estimation and analysis of biological parameters in elasmobranch fisheries: a comparative life history study. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: 969981.
Gales, R., Brothers, N., & Reid, T. (1998) Seabird mortality in the Japanese tuna longline fishery around Australia, 1988–1995. Biological Conservation 86: 3756.
Gallaway, B.J., Cole, J.G., Nance, J.M., Hart, R.A. & Graham, G. L. (2008) Shrimp loss associated with turtle excluder devices: are the historical estimates statistically biased. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 28: 203211.
Gallucci, V.F., Taylor, I.G. & Erzini, K. (2006) Conservation and management of exploited shark populations based on reproductive value. Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences 63: 931942.
Garcia, S.M. & Staples, D.J. (2000) Sustainability reference systems and indicators for responsible marine capture fisheries: a review of concepts and elements for a set of guidelines. Marine and Freshwater Research 51: 385426.
Garcia, S.M. & Cochrane, K.L. (2005) Ecosystem approach to fisheries: a review of implementation guidelines. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62: 311318.
Gilman, E. (2011) Bycatch governance and best practice mitigation technology in global tuna fisheries. Marine Policy 35: 590609.
Grinnell, M.H. (2010) Evaluating the reliability and equitability of at-sea observer release reports in the BC offshore groundfish trawl fishery. Master of Resource Management Project No. 479, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
Haigh, R., Schnute, J., Lacko, L., Eros, C., Workman, G. & Ackerman, B. (2002) At-sea observer coverage for catch monitoring of the British Columbia hook and line fisheries. DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document No. 2002/108. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Nanaimo, BC, Canada [www document]. URL
Hall, S. J. & Mainprize, B. (2004) Towards ecosystem-based fisheries management. Fish and Fisheries 5: 120.
Hall, M.A., Alverson, D.L. & Metuzals, K.I. (2000) By-catch: problems and solutions. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41: 204219.
Heppell, S.S. (2011) Development of quantitative methods to evaluate marine turtle management models. Unpublished report to the Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, USA.
Hilborn, R. (2007) Defining success in fisheries and conflicts in objectives. Marine Policy 31: 153158.
Hobday, A.J., Smith, A.D.M., Webb, H., Daley, R., Wayte, S., Bulman, C., Dowdney, J., Williams, A., Sporcic, M., Dambacher, J., Fuller, M. & Walker, T. (2007) Ecological risk assessment for the effects of fishing: methodology. Report R04/1072 for the Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra, July 2007 [www document]. URL
Hobday, A.J., Smith, A.D.M., Stobutzki, I.C., Bulman, C., Daley, R., Dambacher, J.M., Deng, R.A., Dowdney, J., Fuller, M., Furlani, D., Griffiths, S.P., Johnson, D., Kenyon, R., Knuckey, I.A., Ling, S. D., Pitcher, R., Sainsbury, K. J., Sporcic, M., Smith, T., Turnbull, C., Walker, T.I., Wayte, S.E., Webb, H., Williams, A., Wise, B.S. & Zhou, S. (2011) Ecological risk assessment for the effects of fishing. Fisheries Research 108: 372384.
Hoenig, J.M. (1983) Empirical use of longevity data to estimate mortality rates. Fishery Bulletin 82: 898903.
Huang, H. & Leung, P. (2007) Modeling protected species as an undesirable output: the case of sea turtle interactions in Hawaii's longline fishery. Journal of Environmental Management 84: 523533.
ICCAT (2011) Supplemental recommendation by ICCAT on reducing incidental bycatch of seabirds in ICCAT longline fisheries. Document No. PA4–813A/2011, ICCAT, Madrid, Spain: 5 pp.
ICCAT Standing Committee on Research and Statistics (2010) Report of the 2009 Porbeagle Stock Assessments Meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 22–27, 2009. Report SCRS/2009/014. Collective Volume of Scientific Papers, ICCAT 65: 19092005.
ICCAT (2012) Compendium: management recommendations and resolutions adopted by ICCAT for the conservation of Atlantic tunas and tuna-like species. May 2012 [www document]. URL
Jacoby, D.M.P., Croft, D.P. & Sims, D.W. (2012) Social behaviour in sharks and rays: analysis, patterns and implications for conservation. Fish and Fisheries 13: 399417.
Jaramillo-Legorreta, A., Rojas-Bracho, L., Brownell, R.L., Read, A.J., Reeves, R.R., Ralls, K. & Taylor, B.L. (2007) Saving the vaquita: immediate action, not more data. Conservation Biology 21: 16531655.
Kelleher, K. (2005) Discards in the world's marine fisheries: an update. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 470. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Kurota, H., Hiramatsu, K., Takahashi, N., Hiroshi, S., Itoh, T. & Tsuji, S. (2010) Developing a management procedure robust to uncertainty for southern bluefin tuna: a somewhat frustrating struggle to bridge the gap between ideals and reality. Population Ecology 52: 359372.
Le Quesne, W.J.F. & Jennings, S. (2012) Predicting species vulnerability with minimal data to support rapid risk assessment of fishing impacts on biodiversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 2028.
Lewison, R., Crowder, L., Read, A. & Freeman, S. (2004) Understanding impacts of fisheries bycatch on marine megafauna. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 598604.
Little, L.R., Wayte, S.E., Tuck, G.N., Smith, A.D.M., Klaer, N., Haddon, M., Punt, A.E., Thomson, R., Day, J. & Fuller, M. (2011) Development and evaluation of a cpue-based harvest control rule for the southern and eastern scalefish and shark fishery of Australia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 16991705.
MacCall, A.D. (2009) Depletion-corrected average catch: a simple formula for estimating sustainable yields in data-poor situations. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66: 22672271.
Martell, S. & Froese, R. (2012) A simple method for estimating MSY from catch and resilience. Fish and Fisheries doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2012.00485.x (in press).
Maunder, M.N. (2003) Is it time to discard the Schaefer model from the stock assessment scientist's toolbox? Fisheries Research 61: 145149.
Maunder, M.N., Starr, P.J. & Hilborn, R. (2000) A Bayesian analysis to estimate loss in squid catch due to the implementation of a sea lion population management plan. Marine Mammal Science 16: 413426.
Mawani, T. (2009) Evaluation of the commercial groundfish integration pilot program in British Columbia. Thesis, Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC, Canada.
McElhany, P.E., Steel, A., Avery, K., Yoder, N., Busack, C. & Thompson, B. (2010) Dealing with uncertainty in ecosystem models: lessons from a complex salmon model. Ecological Applications 20: 465482.
Mills, M.S.L. & Ryan, P.G. (2005) Modelling impacts of long-line fishing: what are the effects of pair-bond disruption and sex-biased mortality on albatross fecundity? Animal Conservation 8: 359367.
Moore, J.E. (2012) Management reference points to account for direct and indirect impacts of fishing on marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00586.x (in press).
Moore, J.E., Wallace, B.P., Lewison, R.L., Zydelis, R., Cox, T.M. & Crowder, L.B. (2009) A review of marine mammal, sea turtle and seabird bycatch in USA fisheries and the role of policy in shaping management. Marine Policy 33: 435451.
MSC (2009) MSC FAM default assessment tree. Marine Stewardship Council [www document]. URL
NMFS (2011) US National Bycatch Report, ed. W.A. Karp, L.L. Desfosse, S.G. Brooke. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-117C, National Marine Fisheries Service: 508 pp. [www document]. URL
NOAA (2009) 500 CFR Part 600; Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Annual Catch Limits; National Standard Guidelines; Final Rule. Federal Register 74: 31783213.
NRC (1990) Decline of the Sea Turtles: Causes and Prevention. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
NRC (2010) Sea Turtle Status and Trends: Integrating Demography and Abundance. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries (2011) Draft policy for addressing the fishing-related mortality of seabirds in New Zealand fisheries waters. Ministry of Primary Industries, New Zealand [www document]. URL
Niel, C. & Lebreton, J. (2005) Using demographic invariants to detect overharvested bird populations from incomplete data. Conservation Biology 19: 826835.
Patrick, W.S., Spencer, P., Link, J., Ormseth, O., Cope, J., Field, J., Kobayashi, D., Lawson, P., Gedamke, T., Cortés, E., Bigelow, K. & Overholtz, W. (2010) Assessing the vulnerability of US fisheries to becoming overfished or undergoing overfishing through the use of productivity and susceptibility indices. Fishery Bulletin 108: 305322.
PFMC (2011) Pacific coast groundfish fishery management plan for the California, Oregon and Washington groundfish fishery, as amended through December 2011 [www document]. URL
Peterson, I. & Wrobleski, J.S. (1984) Mortality rate of fishes in the pelagic ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41: 11171120.
Pope, J.G., MacDonald, D.S., Daan, N., Reynolds, J.D. & Jennings, S. (2000) Gauging the impacts of fishing mortality on non-target species. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 689696.
Prager, M.H., Porch, C.E., Shertzer, K.W. & Caddy, J.F. (2003) Targets and limits for management of fisheries: a simple probability-based approach. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 23: 349361.
Punt, A.E. (2006) The FAO precautionary approach after almost 10 years: have we progressed toward implementing simulation-tested feedback-control management systems for fisheries management? Natural Resource Modeling 19: 441464.
Punt, A.E., Siddeek, M.S.M., Garber-Yonts, B., Dalton, M., Rugolo, L., Stram, D., Turnock, B.J. & Zheng, J. (2012) Evaluating the impact of buffers to account for scientific uncertainty when setting TACs: application to red king crab in Bristol Bay, Alaska. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69: 624634.
Punt, A.E., Smith, A.D.M. & Cui, G. (2001). Review of progress in the introduction of management strategy evaluation (MSE) approaches in Australia's South East Fishery. Marine and Freshwater Research 52: 719726.
Quinn, T.J. & Deriso, R.B. (1999) Quantitative Fish Dynamics. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
Rademeyer, R.A., Plagányi, É.E. & Butterworth, D.S. (2007) Tips and tricks in designing management procedures. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64: 618625.
Rago, P.J., Wigley, S.E. & Fogarty, L. (2005) NEFSC bycatch estimation methodology: allocation, precision, and accuracy. NOAA, Northeast Fisheries Science Center Reference Document 05–09: 44 pp. [www document]. URL
Rausser, G., Hamilton, S., Kovach, M. & Stifter, R. (2009) Unintended consequences: the spillover effects of common property regulations. Marine Policy 33: 2439.
Read, A.J. (2008) The looming crisis: interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. Journal of Mammalogy 89: 541548.
Reilly, S.B. & Barlow, J. (1986) Rates of increase in dolphin population size. Fishery Bulletin 84: 527533.
Restrepo, V.R., Thompson, G.G., Mace, P.M., Gabriel, W.L., Low, L.L., MacCall, A.D., Methot, R.D., Powers, J.E., Taylor, B.L., Wade, P.R. & Witzig, J.F. (1998) Technical guidance on the use of precautionary approaches to implementing National Standard 1 of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-31, National Marine Fisheries Service.
Reuter, R.F., Conners, M.E., Dicosimo, J., Gaichas, S., Ormseth, O. & Tenbrink, T.T. (2010). Managing non-target, data-poor species using catch limits: lessons from the Alaskan groundfish fishery. Fisheries Management and Ecology 17: 323335.
Richard, Y., Abraham, E.R. & Filippi, D. (2011) Assessment of the risk to seabird populations from New Zealand commercial fisheries. Final Research Report prepared for Ministry of Fisheries projects IPA2009/19 and IPA2009/20. Unpublished report held by the Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington, New Zealand: 66 pp.
Richards, P.M., Epperly, S.P., Heppell, S.S., King, R.T., Sasso, C.R., Moncada, F., Nodarse, G., Shaver, D.J., Medina, Y. & Zurita, J. (2011) Sea turtle population estimates incorporating uncertainty: a new approach applied to western North Atlantic loggerheads Caretta caretta. Endangered Species Research 15: 151158.
Rochet, M.-J. & Rice, J. C. (2009) Simulation-based management strategy evaluation: ignorance disguised as mathematics? ICES Journal of Marine Science 66: 754762.
Rodríguez-Quiroz, G., Arragón-Noriega, A., Valenzuela-Quiñónez, W. & Esparza-Leal, H.M. (2010) Artisanal fisheries in the conservation zones of the Upper Gulf of California. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía 45: 8998.
Rosenberg, A.A. & Restrepo, V.R. (1994) Uncertainty and risk evaluation in stock assessment advice for US marine fisheries. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51: 27152720.
Sainsbury, K.J., Punt, A.E. & Smith, A.D.M. (2000) Design of operational management strategies for achieving fishery ecosystem objectives. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 731741.
Shivji, M.S. (2010) DNA forensic applications in shark management and conservation. In: Sharks and Their Relatives II: Biodiversity, Adaptive Physiology, and Conservation, ed. Carrier, J.C., Heithaus, M.R. & Musick, J.A., pp. 593610. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press.
Smith, A.D.M. (1994) Management strategy evaluation - the light on the hill. In: Population Dynamics for Fisheries Management: Australian Society for Fish Biology Workshop Proceedings, Perth, 24–25 August 1993, ed. Hancock, D.A., pp. 249253. Perth, Australia: Australian Society for Fish Biology.
Smith, S.J., Hunt, J.J. & Rivard, D. (1993) Risk evaluation and biological reference points for fisheries management. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 120: 442 pp.
Smith, A.D.M., Sainsbury, K.J. & Stevens, R.A. (1999) Implementing effective fisheries-management systems: management strategy evaluation and the Australian partnership approach. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56: 967979.
Smith, A.D.M., Fulton, E.J., Hobday, A.J., Smith, D.C. & Shoulder, P. (2007 b) Scientific tools to support the practical implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64: 633639.
Smith, A.D.M., Hobday, A.J., Webb, H., Daley, R., Wayte, S., Bulman, C., Dowdney, J., Williams, A., Sporcic, M., Dambacher, J., Fuller, M., Furlani, D., Griffiths, S., Kenyon, R. & Walker, T. (2007 a) Ecological Risk Assessment for the Effects of Fishing: Final Report R04/1072 for the Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra, Australia.
Smith, D.C., Punt, A., Dowling, N., Smith, A.D.M., Tuck, G.N. & Knuckley, I. (2009) Reconciling approaches to the assessment and management of data-poor species and fisheries with Australia's harvest strategy policy. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management and Ecosystem Science 1: 244254.
Snover, M.L. & Heppell, S.S. (2009) Application of diffusion approximation for risk assessments of sea turtle populations. Ecological Applications 19: 774785.
Stevens, J.D., Bonfil, R., Dulvy, N.K. & Walker, P.A. (2000) The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 476494.
Stobutzki, I., Miller, M. & Brewer, D. (2001) Sustainability of fishery bycatch: a process for assessing highly diverse and numerous bycatch. Environmental Conservation 28: 167181.
Stobutzki, I.C., Miller, M.J., Heales, D.S. & Brewer, D.T. (2002) Sustainability of elasmobranchs caught as bycatch in a tropical prawn (shrimp) trawl fishery. Fishery Bulletin 100: 800821.
Tasker, M.L., Camphuysen, C.J., Cooper, J., Garthe, S., Montevecchi, W.A. & Blaber, S.J.M. (2000) The impacts of fishing on marine birds. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 531547.
Taylor, B.L. (1997) Defining ‘population’ to meet management objectives for marine mammals. In: Molecular Genetics of Marine Mammals, ed. Dizon, A.E., Chivers, S.J. & Perrin, W.J., pp. 4965. Society of Marine Mammalogy, Special Publication 3.
Taylor, B.L. & DeMaster, D.P. (1993) Implications of non-linear density dependence. Marine Mammal Science 9: 360371.
Taylor, B.L., Wade, P.R., de Master, D.P. & Barlow, J. (2000) Incorporating uncertainty into management models for marine mammals. Conservation Biology 14: 12431252.
Taylor, I.G., Gertseva, V., Methot, R.D. Jr & Maunder, M.N. (2012) A stock–recruitment relationship based on pre-recruit survival, illustrated with application to spiny dogfish shark. Fisheries Research doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2012.04.018 (in press).
Tuck, G.N. (2011) Are bycatch rates sufficient as the principal fishery performance measure and method of assessment for seabirds? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21: 412422.
Tuck, G.N., Phillips, R.A., Small, C., Thomson, R.B., Klaer, N.L., Taylor, F., Wanless, R.M. & Arrizabalaga, H. (2011) An assessment of seabird-fishery interactions in the Atlantic Ocean. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68: 16281637.
USEPA (1998) Guidelines for ecological risk assessment. EPA/630/R-95/002F. Federal Register 63: 2684626924.
Wade, P.R. (1998) Calculating limits to the allowable human-caused mortality of cetaceans and pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science 14: 137.
Wade, P.R., Reeves, R.R. & Mesnick, S.L. (2012) Social and behavioral factors in cetacean responses to overexploitation: are odontocetes less ‘resilient’ than mysticetes? Journal of Marine Biology doi: 10.1155/2012/567276 (in press).
Wallace, B.P., DiMatteo, A.D., Bolten, A.B., Chaloupka, M.Y., Hutchinson, B.J., Abreu-Grobois, F.A., Mortimer, J.A., Seminoff, J.A., Amorocho, D., Bjorndal, K.A., Bourjea, J., Bowen, B.W., Dueñas, R.B., Casale, P., Choudhury, B.C., Costa, A., Dutton, P.H., Fallabrino, A., Finkbeiner, E.M., Girard, A., Girondot, M., Hamann, M., Hurley, B.J., López-Mendilaharsu, M., Marcovaldi, M.A., Musick, J.A., Nel, R., Pilcher, N.J., Troëng, S., Witherington, B. & Mast, R.B. (2011) Global conservation priorities for marine turtles. PLoS ONE 6: e24510.
Ward-Paige, C.A. & Lotze, H.K. (2011). Assessing the value of recreational divers for censusing elasmobranchs. PLoS ONE 6: e25609.
Warden, M. L. & Murray, K.T. (2011) Reframing protected species interactions with commercial fishing gear: Moving toward estimating the unobservable. Fisheries Research 110: 387390.
Waugh, S.M., Baker, G.B., Gales, R. & Croxall, J.P. (2008) CCAMLR process of risk assessment to minimise the effects of longline fishing mortality on seabirds. Marine Policy 32: 442454.
Watson, J.T., Essington, T.E., Lennert-Cody, C.E. & Hall, M.A. (2009) Trade-offs in the design of fishery closures: management of silky shark bycatch in the Eastern Pacific Ocean tuna fishery. Conservation Biology 23: 626635.
WCPFC (2011) Report of the First Meeting of the Kobe Process Joint Technical Working Group on Bycatch, La Jolla, CA July 11, 2011. WCPFC-SC7–2011/EB-WP-14. Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission Secretariat.
Werner, T., Krauss, S., Read, A. & Zollett, E. (2006) Fishing techniques to reduce the bycatch of threatened marine animals. Marine Technology Society Journal 40: 5068.
Wetzel, C.R. & Punt, A.E. (2011) Model performance for the determination of appropriate harvest levels in the case of data-poor stocks. Fisheries Research 110: 342355.
Williams, R., Hall, A. & Winship, A. (2008) Potential limits to anthropogenic mortality of small cetaceans in coastal waters of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 18671878.
Zhou, S. & Griffiths, S.P. (2008) Sustainability assessment for fishing effects (SAFE): a new quantitative ecological risk assessment method and its application to elasmobranch bycatch in an Australian trawl fishery. Fisheries Research 91: 5668.
Zhou, S., Smith, A.D.M. & Fuller, M. (2011) Quantitative ecological risk assessment for fishing effects on diverse non-target species in a multi-sector and multi-gear fishery. Fisheries Research 112: 168178.
Zhou, S., Milton, D.A. & Fry, G.C. (2012 a) Integrated risk analysis for rare marine species impacted by fishing: sustainability assessment and population trend modelling. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69: 271280
Zhou, S., Yin, S., Thorson, J.T., Smith, A.D.M. & Fuller, M. (2012 b) Linking fishing mortality reference points to life history traits: an empirical study. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 69: 12921301.


Evaluating sustainability of fisheries bycatch mortality for marine megafauna: a review of conservation reference points for data-limited populations

  • J. E. MOORE (a1), K. A. CURTIS (a2), R. L. LEWISON (a3), P. W. DILLINGHAM (a4), J. M. COPE (a5), S. V. FORDHAM (a6), S. S. HEPPELL (a7), S. A. PARDO (a8), C. A. SIMPFENDORFER (a9), G. N. TUCK (a10) and S. ZHOU (a11)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed