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Tales from the Elevator and Other Stories of Modern Service in New York City

  • Daniel Levinson Wilk

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1. Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York, 1961), 40.

2. For the first category, see Hardt, Michael and Negri, Antonio, Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire (New York, 2004); Hochschild, Arlie Russell, The Commercialization of Intimate Life (Berkeley, Calif., 2003); Hochschild, Arlie Russell, The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling (Berkeley, Calif., 1983). For the second, see, for example, Tye, Larry, Rising from the Rails: Pullman Porters and the Making of the Black Middle Class (New York, 2004); Arnesen, Eric, Brotherhoods of Color: Black Railroad Workers and the Struggle for Equality (Cambridge, Mass., 2001); Cobble, Dorothy Sue, Dishing it Out: Waitresses and Their Unions in the Twentieth Century (Urbana, Ill., 1991); Norwood, Stephen H., Labor’s Flaming Youth: Telephone Operators and Worker Militancy, 1878–1923 (Urbana, Ill., 1990); Benson, Susan Porter, Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890–1940 (Urbana, Ill., 1986); Melosh, Barbara, “The Physician’s Hand”: Work Culture and Conflict in American Nursing (Philadelphia, 1982); Braverman, Harry, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century (New York, 1974), 359–74.

3. See, for example, Wilson, William Julius, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York, 1996), 31 ; Bluestone, Barry and Harrison, Bennett, The Deindustrialization of America: Plant Closings, Community Dismantlement, & the Abandoning of Basic Industry (New York, 1982), 27 ; Lichtenstein, Nelson, State of the Union: A Century of American Labor (Princeton, N.J., 2003), 195.

4. Katzman, David M., Seven Days a Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America (New York, 1978); Dudden, Faye E., Serving Women: Household Service in Nineteenth-Century America (Middletown, Conn., 1983); Sutherland, Daniel E., Americans and their Servants: Domestic Service in the United States from 1800 to 1920 (Baton Rouge, La., 1981).

5. Strasser, Susan, Never Done: A History of American Housework (New York, 1982), 173–76 ; Cowan, Ruth Schwartz, More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave (New York, 1983).

6. The graph compares the number of domestic servants with selected occupations in service industries. It does not include managerial jobs in service industries, many occupations like chambermaid and bellhop that are hard to track through the census, or workers in complementary and competing businesses like boarding houses, brothels, and commercial laundries. If it had included all these people, the shift from servitude to service would appear more dramatic, as it certainly was.

7. Farquhar, George, The Beaux’ Stratagem (1711; Lincoln, Nebraska, 1977); Grand Hotel (MGM, 1932).

8. See, for example, Lebhar, Godfrey M., Chain Stores in America, 1859–1962 (New York, 1963).

9. Benson, Counter Cultures; Leach, William, Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture (New York, 1993); Jakle, John A. and Sculle, Keith A., The Gas Station in America (Baltimore, Md., 1994).

10. For a more explicit treatment of this point, see the forthcoming book by Sandoval-Strausz, A. K., Hotel: An American History (New Haven, Conn.).

11. Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business (Cambridge, Mass., 1977); Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., Inventing the Electronic Century: The Epic Story of the Consumer Electronics and Computer Industries (Cambridge, Mass., 2005).

12. Scranton, Philip, Endless Novelty: Specialty Production and American Industrialization, 1865–1925 (Princeton, N.J., 1997); Raff, Daniel M. G., Lamoreaux, Naomi R., and Temin, Peter, “Beyond Markets and Hierarchies: Toward a New Synthesis of American Business History,American Historical Review 108 (April 2003): 404–33.

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Enterprise & Society
  • ISSN: 1467-2227
  • EISSN: 1467-2235
  • URL: /core/journals/enterprise-and-society
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