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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 February 2017


In the autumn of 1790 Mozart undertook the penultimate journey of his life to participate in the coronation of Leopold II as Holy Roman Emperor in Frankfurt am Main. His attendance and performance at this significant imperial gathering were an investment designed to improve his fortunes. But Mozart's gamble failed. Though it was a key political event, and despite its significance as one of Mozart's final sojourns, not much more is known about the music of the Frankfurt coronation. This article offers a new understanding of Leopold II's imperial accession, positing the coronation as a vibrant context for music culture. Contrary to narratives that position Mozart's concert above all others, I argue that this was far from the case according to his contemporaries. During the coronation festivities the city hosted three theatre companies and many celebrated musicians, including Ludwig Fischer, Johann Hässler, Vincenzo Righini, Antonio Salieri and Georg Vogler, among others. Frankfurt was indeed filled with musicians who cooperated with and competed against one another in the hope of attracting substantial audiences comprised of the Empire's elite. Yet for Mozart, whose concert was poorly advertised and unfortunately timed, this competition proved too intense. By investigating the musical and political events of Leopold II's imperial coronation, I assert that Mozart's investment, which had the potential to alter his life forever, was unsuccessful in part because of a rumour that caused his desired audience to leave Frankfurt temporarily the very morning his performance took place.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2017 

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For their invaluable feedback on earlier versions of this article I am sincerely grateful to Bruce Alan Brown, Sterling E. Murray, Steven Zohn and the anonymous reviewers of this journal. I would also like to express my gratitude to Fiona Stevens for checking my translations and to Ann Kersting-Meuleman at the Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg and Beate Dannhorn at the Historisches Museum Frankfurt for their kind permission to reproduce the figures. Finally, I would like to thank the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, the Leibniz-Institut für Europäische Geschichte and the University of Southampton for generously supporting my research. This study expands on material in the fourth chapter of my doctoral dissertation, ‘The Theatre of Politics and the Politics of Theatre: Music as Representational Culture in the Twilight of the Holy Roman Empire’ (University of Southampton, 2015). Unless otherwise stated, all translations are my own. The following abbreviations are used: A-KR: Austria, Kremsmünster, Benediktinerstift, Musiksammlung A-Whh: Austria, Vienna, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv ÄZA: Ältere Zeremonialakten A-Wn: Austria, Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek D-F: Germany, Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg, Abteilung Musik, Theater, Film Mus S31: Theaterzettel-Sammlung D-NL: Germany, Nördlingen, Stadtarchiv und Stadtbibliothek D-RUl: Germany, Rudolstadt, Thüringisches Staatsarchiv GB-Lna: Great Britain, London, The National Archives


1 Bauer, Wilhelm A., Deutsch, Otto Erich and Eibl, Joseph Heinz, eds, Mozart: Briefe und Aufzeichnungen, seven volumes (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1962–1975), volume 4, 114Google Scholar.

2 von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang, Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (Berlin: Contumax, 2014), 12 Google Scholar.

3 On the imperial coronation as a symbolic display of power see Stollberg-Rilinger, Barbara, Des Kaisers alte Kleider: Verfassungsgeschichte und Symbolsprache des Alten Reiches (Munich: Beck, 2008), especially 227246 Google Scholar.

4 Wolff, Christoph, Mozart at the Gateway to His Fortune: Serving the Emperor, 1788–1791 (New York: Norton, 2012), 47 Google Scholar.

5 Mozart did not know where to address his correspondence to Constanze, who had not responded to his recent letters. On 30 September 1790 he admitted ‘da ich nicht weis ob du in Wien oder in baaden bist so adressire ich diesen brief wieder an die Hofer’ (since I do not know whether you are in Vienna or Baden [bei Wien], I'm again addressing this letter to [his sister-in-law Josepha] Hofer). Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 114.

6 Mozart travelled with his brother-in-law, Franz de Paula Hofer (1755–1796), from Vienna to Frankfurt by way of Eferding, Regensburg, Nuremberg, Würzburg and Aschaffenburg. See Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 112–113.

7 Wolff, Mozart at the Gateway, 49.

8 Wolff, Mozart at the Gateway, 90–106.

9 For example, Heartz, Daniel, Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 1781–1802 (New York: Norton, 2009), 258 Google Scholar.

10 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 118.

11 See, for example, Heartz, Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 289–306; Wolff, Mozart at the Gateway, 107–133; Rice, John A., ‘Political Theater in the Age of Revolution: Mozart's La clemenza di Tito ’, in Austria in the Age of the French Revolution, 1789–1815, ed. Brauer, Kinley J. and Wright, William Edward (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1990), 125150 Google Scholar; Rice, W. A. Mozart: La clemenza di Tito (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991)Google Scholar; Ulrich Konrad, ‘La clemenza di Tito von Wolfgang Amadé Mozart: Krönungsoper – Allegorie – Dramma per musica’, Mozart-Jahrbuch (2009), 93–106; Pross, Wolfgang, ‘Aufklärung, Herrschaft und Repräsentation in Metastasios und Mozarts La clemenza di Tito ’, in Mozart und die europäische Spätaufklärung, ed. Kreimendahl, Lothar (Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, 2011), 267325 Google Scholar; and Woodfield, Ian, Performing Operas for Mozart: Impresarios, Singers and Troupes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 170177 Google Scholar.

12 One need only consult a handful of studies investigating eighteenth-century German music to see the many inconsistent ways in which the Holy Roman Empire is described, if at all. It is frequently dismissed entirely or otherwise used synonymously or confused with polities that never were (in this case the ‘Habsburg Empire’) or with subsequent empires (including the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empires). Historiographically, the Holy Roman Empire has been traditionally deprecated as a fragile and declining polity, whose downfall in 1806 was inevitable after 1648. For the differences between the monarchy and Reich as well as scholarship that rejects and corrects the misguided interpretation of the Holy Roman Empire as a defunct polity see Beales, Derek, Joseph II, two volumes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987–2009)Google Scholar; Whaley, Joachim, Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, two volumes (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012)Google Scholar; and Wilson, Peter H., The Holy Roman Empire: A Thousand Years of Europe's History (London: Allen Lane, 2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

13 See, for example, Heartz, Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 258–259; Wolff, Mozart at the Gateway, 27, 47–50; Kerner, Dieter, ‘Mozart in Frankfurt und Mainz’, Hessisches Ärzteblatt 32/12 (1971), 10731084 Google Scholar; Valentin, Erich, ‘Mozart auf der Reise nach Frankfurt’, Acta Mozartiana 29/3 (1982), 5963 Google Scholar; Paduch, Arno, ‘Festmusiken zu Frankfurter Kaiserwahlen und Krönungen des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts’, Die Musikforschung 59/3 (2006), 211232 Google Scholar; and Brauneis, Walther, ‘Kaiserlich-königliche und königliche Krönungsmessen für Leopold II. und Franz II. – ein Überblick’, in Mozart und die geistliche Musik in Süddeutschland, ed. Riedel, Friedrich W. (Bad Langensalza: Studiopunkt, 2010), 4354 Google Scholar.

14 Deutsch, Otto Erich, Mozart: Die Dokumente seines Lebens (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1961), 326330 Google Scholar.

15 On music in Florence during the reign of Leopold as Grand Duke of Tuscany see Rice, John A., ‘Music in the Duomo of Florence during the Reign of Pietro Leopoldo I (1765–1790)’, in ‘Cantate Domino’: Musica nei secoli per il Duomo di Firenze, ed. Gargiulo, Piero, Giacomelli, Gabriele and Gianturco, Carolyn (Florence: Edifir, 2001), 259274 Google Scholar.

16 For La clemenza di Tito as Habsburg representation see Heartz, Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 289–306; Konrad, ‘La clemenza di Tito’; Pross, ‘Aufklärung, Herrschaft und Repräsentation’; and Rice, ‘Political Theater in the Age of Revolution’.

17 On Leopold II's election and coronation see Whaley, Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, volume 2, 427–429.

18 Although the Habsburgs had served as emperors nearly exclusively for hundreds of years, the election in 1790 was not a foregone conclusion, as there was no King of the Romans (an elected heir apparent). Furthermore, Joseph II's indifferent attitude towards the Reich caused many to consider alternatives to the Habsburgs during the interregnum. See Whaley, German and the Holy Roman Empire, volume 2, 604–605.

19 Whaley, Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, volume 2, 569.

20 On Joseph II's attitude towards the Reich see Beales, Joseph II, volume 2, 403–424. For the Fürstenbund see Whaley, Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, volume 2, 422–426.

21 See Blanning, Timothy, Reform and Revolution in Mainz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974), 303334 Google Scholar.

22 Blanning, Reform and Revolution in Mainz, 307.

23 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 116.

24 On the Mainzer Nationaltheater's role in the coronation of Leopold II see Glatthorn, Austin, ‘Das Mainzer Nationaltheater und die Kaiserkrönung Leopolds II.’, in Mainz und sein Orchester: Stationen einer 500-jährigen Geschichte, ed. Kramer, Ursula and Pietschmann, Klaus (Mainz: ARE, 2014), 95118 Google Scholar. On the Mainzer Nationaltheater more generally see Glatthorn, ‘The Theatre of Politics’, 131–172.

25 Peth, Jakob, Geschichte des Theaters und der Musik zu Mainz: Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Theatergeschichte (Mainz: Prickarts, 1879), 91 Google Scholar.

26 Wagner, Günter, ‘Die Mainzer Oper am Vorabend der Französischen Revolution’, in Aufklärung in Mainz, ed. Weber, Hermann (Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1984), 110 Google Scholar.

27 In 1776 Böhm was the opera director at Vienna's Kärntnertortheater, and he was Joseph II's original choice for producer of his Nationaltheater. After leaving Vienna, Böhm took his new company on tour, where it was active in Salzburg and Augsburg between 1779 and 1780. Böhm's troupe then performed in Frankfurt, Mainz, Cologne, Düsseldorf and Aachen for the next seven years. On Böhm see Peter Branscombe, ‘Böhm, Johann’, Grove Music Online <> (5 August 2016).

28 Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart, Chronik (Stuttgart: Kaiserl. Reichspostamtes) 70 (31 August 1790), 598.

29 For a brief comparison of the repertories see Glatthorn, ‘Das Mainzer Nationaltheater’, 105–109.

30 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 114.

31 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 116.

32 Glatthorn, ‘The Theatre of Politics’, 330.

33 Wolff, Mozart at the Gateway, 48.

34 The Mainzer Nationaltheater had most recently performed Don Giovanni on 8 August 1790. They would stage this work five additional times before the theatre was abruptly dissolved in the autumn of 1792. See Glatthorn, ‘The Theatre of Politics’, 317–342.

35 Heartz does not reveal his source, but it is possible he consulted Deutsch, who claims that Böhm's company performed Die Entführung on 12 October. Deutsch's source is also unclear. Heartz, Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 258, and Deutsch, Mozart: Die Dokumente, 328. According to the playbill printed for that evening's performance (D-F, Mus S31/1790-10-12), the Trier company staged Cora (1782) by Johann Gottlieb Naumann (1741–1801).

36 Glatthorn, ‘The Theatre of Politics’, 330.

37 Privilegirte Mainzer Zeitung 137 (25 September 1790), unpaginated.

38 Hommel, Rudolph, Briefe über die Kaiserwahl, während derselben aus Frankfurt geschrieben (Leipzig: Göschen, 1791), 91 Google Scholar.

39 ‘Theater: Bestand und Uebersicht der Vorstellungen einiger Hauptbühnen Teutschlands’, Journal des Luxus und der Moden 6 (March 1791), 135.

40 Schubart, Chronik 82 (12 October 1790), 687. The Wahlkapitulation (electoral capitulation) was an agreement made between the electors and emperor before the election that confirmed rights and privileges.

41 Although the Reichstadt Frankfurt officially became a Protestant city in 1533, the Cathedral of St Bartholomew remained an independent Stift (ecclesiastical foundation) until 1803. During this period Frankfurt's Catholics belonged to the neighbouring Archbishopric of Mainz, as St Bartholomew was never an episcopal cathedral.

42 Maximilian Franz was the youngest brother of Joseph II and Leopold II, and was elected Archbishop-Elector of Cologne in 1784.

43 Included in this group were the King of Hungary and Bohemia, and the Electors of the Palatinate, Saxony, Brandenburg-Prussia and Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Hanover).

44 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 116.

45 Hommel, Briefe, 116.

46 Hommel, Briefe, 116.

47 There were about eighty tickets of the first type, twenty of the second and seven or eight of the third. Hommel, Briefe, 116.

48 Hommel, Briefe, 119. See also Schubart, Chronik 80 (5 October 1790), 673. Sources do not agree on which antiphon, if any, was performed here. While Hommel and Schubart claim that Veni Sancte Spiritus was sung before the mass, the author of the Vollständiges Diarium states that Veni Creator Spiritus was heard here: Jäger, Johann Christian, Vollständiges Diarium der Römisch-Königlichen Wahl und Kaiserlichen Krönung Ihro nunmehr allerglorwürdigst regierenden kaiserlichen Majestät Leopold des Zweiten (Frankfurt am Main: Jäger, 1791), 279 Google Scholar. A handful of additional sources indicate that an antiphon was not performed before the mass. While it is possible that either Veni Sancte Spiritus or Veni Creator Spiritus was sung before the mass and again before the oath, Veni Creator Spiritus was almost certainly performed following the mass and before the oath, while Veni Sancte Spiritus was sung after the oath. See Glatthorn, ‘The Theatre of Politics’, 182–184, 187.

49 Christoph Henzel, ‘Righini, Vincenzo’, Grove Music Online <> (5 August 2016).

50 For example, see Heartz, Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 258; and David Black, ‘Mozart and the Practice of Sacred Music, 1781–91’ (PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 2007), 226.

51 For additional reports naming Righini as the composer of the election mass see Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 70; Schubart, Chronik 80 (5 October, 1790), 673; Die Krönung Leopold des II. zum römischen Kaiser: Beschrieben von einem Augenzeugen (Frankfurt am Main: Eßlinger, 1790), 26; Hamberger, Julius Wilhelm, Merkwürdigkeiten bey der römischen Königswahl und Kaiserkrönung: Im Anhange Kaiser Leopold II. Wahl und Krönung (Gotha: Perthes, 1791), 181 Google Scholar; and Gerber, Ernst Ludwig, Historisch-biographisches Lexicon der Tonkünstler (Leipzig: Breitkopf, 1792), 292 Google Scholar.

52 Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 279.

53 Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 282. The antiphon Veni Sancte Spiritus is also chanted by cardinals upon entering the Sistine Chapel for papal conclaves.

54 Between 225 and 300 cannons were fired. Berger, Erna and Bund, Konrad, eds, Wahl und Krönung Leopolds II. 1790: Brieftagebuch des Feldschers der kursächsischen Schweizergarde (Frankfurt am Main: Kramer, 1981), 51 Google Scholar, and ‘Ueber die Kaiserwahl und Krönung Leopolds II’, Journal des Luxus und der Moden 5 (November 1790), 583.

55 Hommel, Briefe, 123.

56 Glatthorn, ‘The Theatre of Politics’, 187–188 and 330, and Hommel, Briefe, 130.

57 In this period the imperial family and selected guests embarked on a pleasure cruise on the Main. Berlinische Nachrichten von Staats- und Gelehrten Sachen 124 (16 October 1790), unpaginated.

58 This included the sword of Charlemagne, the sceptre, the Reichsapfel (orb) and the imperial crown.

59 Schubart, Chronik 82 (12 October 1790), 691.

60 For details on the procession see ‘Ueber die Kaiserwahl und Krönung’, 584–588.

61 Berger and Bund, eds, Brieftagebuch, 57.

62 Berger and Bund, eds, Brieftagebuch, 60–61.

63 Berger and Bund, eds, Brieftagebuch, 63.

64 Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto 157 (4 October 1790), 719.

65 Corneilson, Paul, The Autobiography of Ludwig Fischer: Mozart's First Osmin (Malden, MA: Mozart Society of America, 2011), 36 Google Scholar.

66 On Günther von Schwarzburg see Glatthorn, ‘The Theatre of Politics’, 18–35; Leopold, Silke, ‘The Idea of National Opera c.1800’, in Unity and Diversity in European Culture c.1800, ed. Blanning, Timothy and Schulze, Hagen (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 2532 Google Scholar; and Pietschmann, Klaus, ‘Nationale Identitätskonstruktion im deutschsprachigen Musiktheater des ausgehenden 18. Jahrhunderts’, in Die deutsche Nation im frühneuzeitlichen Europa: Politische Ordnung und kulturelle Identität?, ed. Schmidt, Georg (Munich: Oldenbourg, 2010), 297301 Google Scholar.

67 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 2, 125.

68 GB-Lna, FO 7/22, 80.

69 Hommel, Briefe, 166.

70 Hommel, Briefe, 171, and A-Whh, ÄZA 93-1, 55r (without mention of Salieri).

71 Black argues that of all of Mozart's mass settings, only the Mass in C major, ‘Solemnis’ (k337), could have been performed at one of these coronations. Yet, although he speculates that this work may have been used at Franz II's Frankfurt coronation in 1792, Black claims that there is no evidence directly connecting the mass with the event. Black, ‘Mozart and the Practice of Sacred Music’, 201–207 and 239–240. Indeed, the Mass in D major (1792) by Johann Franz Xaver Sterkel (1750–1817) appears far more likely to have been the setting used in the 1792 Frankfurt coronation. During Righini's absence that spring Sterkel assumed the Mainz Kapellmeister's responsibilities, and he corresponded with the Viennese court regarding musical preparations for the upcoming coronation. Bound in a presentation copy, Sterkel's mass includes a dedication to Franz II and contains only the movements that the Mainz and Viennese Kapellen performed during the coronation. Glatthorn, ‘The Theatre of Politics’, 208–209.

72 See, for instance, Heartz, Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven, 258; and Paduch, ‘Festmusiken’, 231. The masses by Walter and Winter were probably performed in various churches in Frankfurt on the Sunday before the coronation.

73 Hommel, Briefe, 173.

74 von Mosel, Ignaz Franz Edlen, Ueber das Leben und die Werke des Anton Salieri (Vienna: Wallishausser, 1827), 138 Google Scholar.

75 Salieri's Mass in D major is preserved in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (A-Wn, HK.485* Mus.).

76 Black, ‘Mozart and the Practice of Sacred Music’, 146–147.

77 Hettrick, Jane, ‘A Thematic Catalogue of Sacred Works by Antonio Salieri: An Uncatalogued Holograph of the Composer in the Archive of the Vienna Hofkapelle’, Fontes Artis Musicae 33/3 (1986), 232 Google Scholar.

78 Black, ‘Mozart and the Practice of Sacred Music’, 146.

79 Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 315–332; A-Whh, ÄZA 93-1, 47r–86r; and Aechtes vollständiges Protokoll des kurfürstl. hohen Wahlkonvents zu Frankfurt im Jahre 1790 (Frankfurt am Main, 1791), volume 2, 431–455. Even if these portions of the mass ordinary were not set to music, they may have been chanted or said inaudibly by one of the ecclesiastical electors.

80 Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 320–321; and A-Whh, ÄZA 93-1, 57r. In an index identifying the officials present at the coronation, Antonio Salieri is listed along with the Deputy Kapellmeister Ignaz Umlauf (1746–1796) and fifteen unnamed chamber musicians. Names of officials from Mainz are transmitted a few pages later. Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, appendix 2, 5, and 12. Within the ‘Lista, e specificazione dell’ accord fatto da me Antonio Salieri . . . con li Signori musici della cappella di Magonza, ed altri, per li servizi di chiesa e di tavola fatti in Francofort nell’ Incoronazione di S[ua] S[acra] c[esarea] m[aestà] di Imperiale Leopoldo II’ (List and specifications of the agreement between me, Antonio Salieri . . . and the gentlemen musicians of the Mainz Kapelle and others for their services in the church and at the table in Frankfurt at the coronation of His Holy Imperial Majesty the Emperor Leopold II), Salieri names forty-two musicians from Mainz and Vienna who took part in the ceremony. Salieri includes here the Mainz Hofkapelle nearly in its entirety together with only a handful of members from his own Kapelle, such as the violinists Franz Hofer and Zeno Franz Menzel, the cellist Joseph Weigl and the tenor Valentin Adamberger. A-Whh, ÄZA, 92-Konv.B, 166r–167r. For a list of the Mainz and Viennese Hofkapellen c1790 see Kurmainzischer Hof- und Staats-Kalender: Mit einem Verzeichniß des erzhohen Domkapitels, auch aller zum kurf. Hof- und Kurstaate gehörigen Stellen und Aemter (Mainz: St Rochus Hospitalsbuchdruckerei, 1790); and Kaiserlich-Königlicher Hof- und Ehrenkalender auf das gemeine Jahr nach der gnadenreichen Geburt unsers Seligmachers Jesu Christi 1791: Zum Gebrauche des Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hofes (Vienna: Ghelenschen Erben, 1791), unpaginated. No Viennese list from 1790 survives.

81 A-Whh, ÄZA 93-1, 59v.

82 Hommel, Briefe, 175, and Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 322. Both antiphons describe the anointment of a new king.

83 Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 325. Although Salieri had set the responsory Desiderium animae ejus (A-KR, D 16/86), there is no evidence to suggest that it was performed at the 1790 coronation.

84 Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 325.

85 Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 325. See also Hettrick, ‘A Thematic Catalogue’, 232. The autograph of Salieri's Te Deum / a / 4 Voci / 2. Violoni / 2. Oboe / 2. Trombe, e Timpani / Viola, Violoncello / Violone, Fagotti / Organo, e M. D. C. is located in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (A-Wn, HK.491 Mus.). Black has suggested that Salieri composed the Te Deum for Joseph II's return to Vienna in 1788 and recast it for Leopold II's coronation two years later. Black, ‘Mozart and the Practice of Sacred Music’, 147.

86 Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 325.

87 Aechtes vollständiges Protokoll, 447.

88 Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 328; A-Whh, ÄZA, 92-Konv.B, 166r–167r; and A-Whh, ÄZA 93-1, 81v.

89 On the illuminations see Jäger, Vollständiges Diarium, 332–336.

90 Hommel, Briefe, 189.

91 Hommel, Briefe, 189–190.

92 The music is lost; however, a printed libretto is held in the Stadtarchiv Nördlingen (D-NL, 321-19). Nopitsch also set a cantata, Lasst uns frohlocken und jauchzen und singen, for Franz II's coronation (D-NL, 321-20).

93 Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto 157 (4 October 1790), 714.

94 Gerber, Ernst Ludwig, Neues historisch-biographisches Lexikon der Tonkünstler (Leipzig: A. Kühnel, 1812–1814), volume 4, 502Google Scholar.

95 Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto 161 ([11] October 1790), 732, and Pichl, Václav, Leopolds Krönungs-Ouverture (Berlin: Hummel, 1790; D-RUI, HKS. Nr. HS364)Google Scholar.

96 Schmid, C. H., ‘Verzeichniß einiger Speculationen, welche die letzte Kaiserwahl und Krönung zu Frankfurt am Mayn veranlaßte’, Journal von und für Deutschland 8/1 (1791), 55 Google Scholar.

97 Schmid, ‘Verzeichniß einiger Speculationen’, 55–57 (concerts listed on 56).

98 Franz had learnt the baryton while in the service of the Esterházys, and he embarked on a concert tour throughout the Empire after his release from their employ. On Carl Franz see Horace Fitzpatrick and Paul R. Bryan, ‘Franz, Carl’, Grove Music Online <> (5 August 2016).

99 The Böck brothers received their musical training from Joseph Vogel in Regensburg and travelled widely throughout Europe, including the Rhineland. On the Böck brothers see Horace Fitzpatrick and Thomas Hiebert, ‘Böck’, Grove Music Online <> (5 August 2016).

100 Dülon never had a court appointment, and thus relied on concert tours as his primary means of income. See Ardal Powell, ‘Dülon, Friedrich Ludwig’, Grove Music Online <> (5 August 2016).

101 On Johann Hässler see Geoffrey Norris and Klaus-Peter Koch, ‘Hässler, Johann Wilhelm’, Grove Music Online <> (5 August 2016).

102 On the Hässler–Mozart rivalry see Woodfield, Performing Operas for Mozart, 155–158.

103 Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto 156 (2 October 1790), 709.

104 Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto 163 (15 October 1790), 740. A copy of the libretto is preserved in Frankfurt at the Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg (D-F Mus. W 381).

105 On Mozart and Vogler see Abert, Hermann, W. A. Mozart, trans. Spencer, Stewart, ed. Eisen, Cliff (London: Yale University Press, 2007), 405406 Google Scholar.

106 Frankfurter Staats-Ristretto 157 (4 October 1790), 713.

107 Franckfurter Frag- und Anzeigungs-Nachrichten 85 (8 October 1790), unpaginated. This final piece is commonly mentioned in connection with Beethoven's Symphony in F major, ‘Pastoral’, Op. 68, which depicts a similar topic between the third and fifth movements.

108 On Mozart's petition see Link, Dorothea, ‘Mozart's Appointment to the Viennese Court’, in Words About Mozart: Essays in Honour of Stanley Sadie, ed. Link, Dorothea and Nagley, Judith (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2005), 153178 Google Scholar.

109 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 107. Translated in Link, ‘Mozart's Appointment’, 167.

110 Link, ‘Mozart's Appointment’, 167.

111 When Leopold finally did reorganize the Hofmusik at the beginning of 1791, Mozart was not promoted, but rather kept in his current position. See Link, ‘Mozart's Appointment’, 167–170.

112 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 117.

113 Mozart had known the countess for some time, as she had performed the part of Electra in the 1786 production of Idomeneo (k366) at the Auersperg Palace in Vienna. See Böhmer, Karl, Mozart in Mainz (Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 2006), 23 and 25Google Scholar.

114 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 117–118. Translated in Zaslaw, Neal, Mozart's Symphonies: Context, Performance Practice, Reception (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), 428 Google Scholar. Franz Maria Schweitzer (1722–1812) was a banker and privy councillor in Frankfurt.

115 Deutsch, Mozart: Die Dokumente, 329.

116 D-F, Mus S31/1790-10-15. The broadside also indicated that tickets were available for purchase between Thursday afternoon and Friday morning.

117 Mozart was once so captivated by Schick's singing that he was reported to have said ‘Nun will ich nicht weiter singen hören’ (Now I do not want to hear any more singing). Levezow, Konrad, Leben und Kunst der Frau Margarete Luise Schick, gebornen Hamel, Königl. Preuss. Kammersängerin und Mitgliedes des Nationaltheaters zu Berlin (Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1809), 15 Google Scholar.

118 John Rosselli, ‘Ceccarelli, Francesco’, Grove Music Online <> (5 August 2016).

119 Zaslaw, Mozart's Symphonies, 428.

120 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 6, 401.

121 Zaslaw, Neal, ‘Mozart as a Working Stiff’, in On Mozart, ed. Morris, James M. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 107 Google Scholar.

122 Zaslaw, Mozart's Symphonies, 428, and Böhmer, Mozart in Mainz, 28.

123 Lipowsky, Felix Joseph, Baierisches Musik-Lexikon (Munich: Siel, 1811), 16 Google Scholar.

124 When Johann André published k459 and k537 in 1794, he included a note stating these concertos were performed at the 1790 coronation. Deutsch, Mozart: Die Dokumente, 329.

125 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 6, 401.

126 Zaslaw, Mozart's Symphonies, 428.

127 Zaslaw, Mozart's Symphonies, 428.

128 Bauer, Deutsch and Eibl, eds, Mozart: Briefe, volume 4, 118.

129 Part of the monument erected at the site of the parade, the Leopoldsäule, survives today and is located in Frankfurt-Seckbach. It marks the location of the manoeuvres, where Leopold ate lunch at the Hessian camp. The camp was constructed to protect the city from the French and contained about six thousand soldiers. Augspurgische Ordinari Postzeitung: Von Staats[-], gelehrten, historis[chen] und oekonomis[chen] Neuigkeiten 251 (20 October 1790), unpaginated.

130 Schmid, ‘Verzeichniß einiger Speculationen’, 57.

131 Woodfield, Performing Operas for Mozart, 162.

132 Schubart, Chronik 72 (7 September 1790), 614. As an organist himself, Schubart may have been biased.

133 Schubart, Chronik 79 (1 October 1790), 670.

134 Hommel attended the second concert because he wished to hear Vogler's ‘masterpiece’, the Hirtenwonne vom Donnerwetter unterbrochen. Hommel, Briefe, 93.

135 Hommel, Briefe, 93.

136 See Schmid, ‘Verzeichniß einiger Speculationen’, 55–57.

137 Although one periodical claimed that the Mainz and Trier companies staged the opera twenty-four times over a period of six weeks, a reconstruction of the Mainz company's Spielplan indicates only fourteen performances in four years. Furthermore, no extant playbills indicate that Böhm's troupe staged Oberon during the coronation. Musikalische Korrespondenz der teutschen Filarmonischen Gesellschaft für das Jahr 1790 19 (10 November 1790), 147, and Glatthorn, ‘The Theatre of Politics’, 178–179 and 317–342.

138 Deutsch, Mozart: Die Dokumente, 330. Mozart's failure in Frankfurt may explain his journey to Mainz after the coronation festivities on 16 October. In an attempt to provide Mozart with the audience he hoped for in Frankfurt, Countess Hatzfeld may have used her influence at court to arrange a performance before the elector and distinguished guests. Mozart's Mainz concert of 20 October 1790 took place in the electoral palace and probably featured the same programme as in Frankfurt. See Böhmer, Mozart in Mainz, 21–22.

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