Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Temperamental influences on psychosocial adjustment: From infancy to adolescence

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 October 2015

Ann Sanson
Affiliation:
The University of Melbourne
Margot Prior
Affiliation:
The University of Melbourne
Frank Oberklaid
Affiliation:
Royal Children's Hospital
Diana Smart
Affiliation:
The University of Melbourne
Corresponding
Get access

Abstract

Results are presented from a recent study within the Australian Temperament Project (ATP), in which a group of children with significant behaviour problems, and a comparison group, were selected from the sample at 11–12 years and home-visited, with assessments of clinical diagnoses, intelligence, school achievement and social competence, and a variety of family functioning indices. Approximately half the behaviour problem group received at least one diagnosis. Twice as many boys as girls were diagnosed. Rates of comorbidity were high but, generally, within—rather than between—the broadband internalising or externalising spectra. Concurrent family functioning measures discriminated between groups, but not as strongly as intrinsic child measures, and the particular family variables that best discriminated between groups showed sex differences. High stability of behaviour problems from earlier years was evident, and the behaviour problem group differed from the comparison group on measures of temperament, behaviour, and context from early childhood; both findings reinforce the need for early intervention.The implications of these and other findings from the ATP, particularly the need for early intervention, are discussed.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Australian Psychological Society 1998

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Allen, K., & Prior, M. (1995). Assessment of the validity of easy and difficult temperament through observed mother-child behaviours. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 18, 609630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angleitner, A., & Ostendorf, F. (1994). Temperament and the big five factors of personality. In Halverson, C.F.., Kohnstamm, G.A., & Martin, R.P. (Eds.), The developing structure of temperament and personality from infancy to adulthood (pp. 6990). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Axia, G., Prior, M., & Carelli, G. (1992). Cultural influences on temperament: A comparison of Italian, Australian, and Anglo-Australian toddlers. Australian Psychologist, 27, 5256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bates, J.E. (1980). The concept of difficult temperament. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 26, 8997.Google Scholar
Bates, J.E., Bayles, K., Bennett, D.S., Ridge, B., & Brown, M.M. (1991). Origins of externalizing behavior problems at eight years of age. In Pepler, D.J., & Rubin, H. (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 93121). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Bates, J.E., & Wachs, T.D. (1994). Temperament: Individual differences at the interface of biology and behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berndt, T.J., & Perry, R.B. (1986). Children’s perceptions of friendships as supportive relationships. Developmental Psychology, 22, 640648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carey, W.B., & McDevitt, S.D. (1978). Revision of the Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Paediatrics, 60, 735739.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D.J. (1995). Perspectives on developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D.J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and methods (pp. 322). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Compas, B.E., & Hammen, C.L. (1994). Child and adolescent depression: Covariation and comorbidity in development. In Haggetty, R.J., Sharrod, L.R., Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (Eds.), Stress, risk, and resilience in children and adolescents: Processes, mechanisms, and interventions (pp. 225267). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Davidson, G., & Sanson, A. (1995). Should the APS have an ethical code of social action? Bulletin of the Australian Psychological Society, 17, 24.Google Scholar
Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L.J., Shannon, F.T., & Lawton, J.M. (1989). The Christchurch Child Development Study: A review of epidemiological findings. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 3, 302325.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fergusson, D.M., Lynskey, M.T., & Horwood, L.J. (1996). Factors associated with continuity and changes in disruptive behaviour patterns between childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 533553.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fox, N.A., Calkins, S.D., & Bell, M.A. (1994). Neural plasticity and development in the first two years of life: Evidence from cognitive and socioemotional domains of research. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 677696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fullard, W., McDevitt, S.C., & Carey, W.B. (1984). Assessing temperament in one to three year old children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 9, 205216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldberg, G. (1978). Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, UK: NFER Publishing Company.Google Scholar
Gresham, F.M., & Elliott, S.N. (1990). Social Skills Rating System. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
Hagekull, B. (1989). Longitudinal stability of temperament within a behavioural style framework. In Kohnstamm, G.A., Bates, J.E., & Rothbart, M.K. (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 283298). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
Henderson, S., Duncan-Jones, P., McAuley, H., & Ritchie, K. (1978). The patient’s primary group. British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 7486.Google Scholar
Hodges, K. (1986). Child Assessment Schedule: Revised. Michigan: Hodges.Google Scholar
Kagan, J. (1997). Temperament and the reactions to unfamiliarity. Child Development, 68, 139143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kagan, J., & Snidman, N. (1991). Infant predictors of inhibited and uninhibited profiles. Psychological Science, 2, 4044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kazdin, A.E., & Kagan, J. (1994). Models of dysfunction in developmental psychopathology. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1, 3552.Google Scholar
Kyrios, M., & Prior, M. (1990). Temperament, stress, and family factors in behavioural adjustment of 3-5 year old children. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 13, 6793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kyrios, M., Prior, M., Oberklaid, F., & Demetriou, A. (1989). Cross cultural studies of temperament: Temperament in Greek infants. International Journal of Psychology, 24, 585603.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lanthier, R.P., & Bates, J.E. (1995). Infancy era predictors of the big five personality dimensions in adolescence. Paper presented at the 1995 Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
Lerner, J.V., & Lerner, R.M. (1983). Temperament and adaptation across life: Theoretical and empirical issues. In Baltes, P.B., & Brim, O.G. (Eds.), Lifespan development and behaviour (Vol. 5, pp. 197231). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Loeber, R., & Farrington, D.P. (1994). Problems and solutions in longitudinal and experimental treatment studies of child psychopathology and delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 887900.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marsh, H.W., Barnes, J., Cairns, L., & Tidman, M. (1984). Self-Description Questionnaire: Age and sex effects in the structure and level of self-concept for pre-adolescent children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 940956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maziade, M. (1989). Should adverse temperament matter to the clinician? An empirically based answer. In Kohnstamm, G.A., Bates, J.E., & Rothbart, M.K. (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 421435). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
Maziade, M., Caron, C., Cote, R., Merette, C., Bernier, H., Laplante, B., Boutin, R., & Thivierge, J. (1990). Psychiatric status of adolescents who had extreme temperaments at age seven. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 15311536.Google Scholar
McGee, R., Feehan, M., & Williams, S. (1996). Mental health. In Silva, P.A., & Stanton, W.R. (Eds.), From child to adult: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (pp. 150162). Auckland, NZ: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
McClowry, S.G. (1995). The development of the School-Age Temperament Inventory. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 41, 271285.Google Scholar
Oberklaid, F., Kyrios, M., Sewell, J., Sanson, A.V., & Prior, M. (1991). Temperament and behaviour of pre-term infants: A six-year follow-up. Pediatrics, 87, 854861.Google ScholarPubMed
Oberklaid, F., Prior, M., & Clements, A. (1983). Validation of an infant temperament questionnaire for an Australian population. Australian Pediatric Journal, 19, 193.Google Scholar
Oberklaid, F., Prior, M., Golvan, D., Clements, A., & Williamson, A. (1984). Temperament in Australian infants. Australian Pediatric Journal, 20, 181184.Google ScholarPubMed
Oberklaid, F., Prior, M.R., Nolan, T., Smith, P., & Flavell, H. (1985). Temperament in infants born prematurely. Journal of Developmental & Behavioural Pediatrics, 6, 5761.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oberklaid, F., Prior, M., & Sanson, A. (1986). Temperament of pre-term versus full-term infants. Journal of Developmental & Behavioural Pediatrics, 7, 159162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oberklaid, F., Prior, M., Sanson, A., Sewell, J., & Kyrios, M. (1988). Variation in toddler temperament ratings according to sex, socio-economic status, and cultural context. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 142, 381.Google Scholar
Oberklaid, F., Prior, M., Sanson, A., Sewell, J., & Kyrios, M. (1990). The assessment of temperament in the toddler age group. Pediatrics, 85, 559566.Google ScholarPubMed
Oberklaid, F., Sanson, A.V., Pedlow, R., & Prior, M. (1993). Predicting preschool behaviour problems from temperament and other variables in infancy. Pediatrics, 91, 113120.Google ScholarPubMed
Oberklaid, F., Sewell, J., Kyrios, M., & Prior, M. (1988). Temperament and behaviour of toddlers and preschoolers born prematurely. Australian Pediatric Journal, 24, 391392.Google Scholar
Oberklaid, F., Sewell, J., Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Kyrios, M. (1988). The effect of cultural background on temperament and behaviour in young children. Australian Pediatric Journal, 24, 396.Google Scholar
Offord, D.R., Boyle, M.H., Szatmari, P., Rae-Grant, N., et al. (1987). Ontario Child Health Study: Six-month prevalence of disorder and rates of service utilization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 832836.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, J.G., & Asher, S.R. (1987). Peer relations and later psychological adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paterson, G., & Sanson, A. (in press). The association of behavioural adjustment with temperament, parenting and family characteristics among 5-year-old children. Social Development.Google Scholar
Patterson, G., Reid, J., & Dishion, T. (1992). Antisocial boys. Oregon: Castalia.Google Scholar
Pedlow, R., Sanson, A., Prior, M., & Oberklaid, F. (1993). The stability of maternally reported temperament from infancy to eight years. Developmental Psychology, 29, 9981007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porges, S.W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J.A., Portales, A.L., & Greenspan, S (1996). Infant regulation of the vagal “brake” predicts child behaviour problems: A psychobiological model of social behaviour. Developmental Psychology, 29, 697712.3.0.CO;2-O>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prior, M., Crook, G., Stripp, A., Power, M., & Joseph, M. (1986). The relationship between temperament and personality: An exploratory study. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 875881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prior, M., Sanson, A., Carroll, R., & Oberklaid, F. (1989). Social class differences in temperament ratings of pre-school children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 35, 239248.Google Scholar
Prior, M., Sanson, A., Garino, E., & Oberklaid, F. (1987). Ethnic influences on “difficult” temperament and behaviour problems in infants. Australian Journal of Psychology, 39, 163171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (1989). The Australian Temperament Project. In Kohnstamm, G.A., Bates, J.E., & Rothbart, M.K. (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 537554). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
Prior, M., Sanson, A., Oberklaid, F., & Northam, E. (1987). Measurement of temperament in 1- to 3-year-old children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 10, 121132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prior, M., Sanson, A., Smart, D., & Oberklaid, F. (1995). Reading disability in an Australian community sample. Australian Journal of Psychology, 47, 3237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prior, M., Sanson, A., Smart, D., & Oberklaid, F. (in press). Psychological disorders and their correlates in an Australian community sample of preadolescent children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.Google Scholar
Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (1993). Sex differences in psychological adjustment from infancy to eight years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 291304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (in press). Relationships between learning difficulties and psychological problems in preadolescent children from a longitudinal sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.Google Scholar
Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A., Pedlow, R., & Oberklaid, F. (1991). Transient versus stable behaviour problems in a normative sample: Infancy to school age. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 17, 423443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rende, R., & Plomin, R. (1995). Nature, nurture and the development of psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D.J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and methods (pp. 291314). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M.K. (1989). Temperament and development. In Kohnstamm, G.A., Bates, J.E., & Rothbart, M.K. (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 187247). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
Rothbart, M.K., & Bates, J.E. (1998). Temperament. In Damon, W. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp. 105176). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Rutter, M. (1978). Family, area and school influences in the genesis of conduct disorders. In Hersov, L.A., Berger, M., & Shaffer, D. (Eds.), Aggression and anti-social behaviour in childhood and adolescence (pp. 95114). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
Rutter, M., Tizard, J., & Whitmore, K. (1970). Education, health, and behaviour. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Sanders, M.R., & Duncan, S.B. (1995). Empowering families: Policy, training, and research issues in promoting family mental health in Australia. Behaviour Change, 12, 109121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanson, A. (1994). Child rearing questionnaire. Unpublished scale, University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
Sanson, A., Amos, D., Jarman, F.C., & Oberklaid, F. (1998). Psychosocial correlates of chronic illness in an Australian community sample: Behaviour, perceived self-competence, and academic achievement. (Manuscript submitted for publication).Google Scholar
Sanson, A., Kennedy, G., Matjacic, E., Reid, K., & Smart, D. (1994). Children’s peer relationships: Associations between peer status, friendship, behavioural adjustment and conflict resolution styles. In Oxenberry, K., Rigby, K., & Slee, P. (Eds.), Children’s peer relations: Cooperation and conflict (pp. 352367). Adelaide: Institute of Social Research, University of South Australia.Google Scholar
Sanson, A., Oberklaid, F., Pedlow, R., & Prior, M. (1991). Risk indicators: Assessment of infancy predictors of preschool behavioural maladjustment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 609626.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanson, A., Pedlow, R., Cann, W., Prior, M., & Oberklaid, F. (1996). Shyness ratings: Stability and correlates in early childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development 19, 705724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanson, A., Prior, M., & Kyrios, M. (1990a). Contamination of measures in temperament research. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 36, 179192.Google Scholar
Sanson, A., Prior, M., & Kyrios, M. (1990b). Further exploration of the link between temperament and behaviour problems: A reply to Bates. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 36, 573576.Google Scholar
Sanson, A., Prior, M., & Oberklaid, F. (1985). Normative data on temperament in Australian infants. Australian Journal of Psychology, 37, 185195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanson, A., Prior, M., Oberklaid, F., Garino, E., & Sewell, J. (1987). The structure of infant temperament: Factor analysis of the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Infant Behavior & Development, 10, 97104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanson, A., Prior, M., & Smart, D. (1996). Predicting reading disabilities and behaviour problems at 7-8 years from longitudinal data from infancy to 6 years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 529541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanson, A., Prior, M., Smart, D., & Oberklaid, F. (1993). Gender differences in aggression in childhood: Implications for a peaceful world. Australian Psychologist, 28, 8692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanson, A., & Rothbart, M.K. (1995). Child temperament and parenting. In Bornstein, M. (Ed.). Handbook on parenting (Vol. 4, pp. 299321). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Sanson, A., Smart, D., Prior, M., & Oberklaid, F. (1993). Precursors of hyperactivity and aggression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 12071216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanson, A., Smart, D., Prior, M., & Oberklaid, F. (1996, August). Early characteristics of 11-12 year old children with competent, average, and problematic peer relationships. Paper presented at the 26th International Congress of Psychology Conference, Montreal.Google Scholar
Sanson, A., Smart, D., Prior, M., Oberklaid, F., & Amos, D. (1996, October). Temperamental precursors of externalising and internalising behavior problems at 11-12 years. Paper presented at 11th Occasional Temperament Conference, Eugene, OR.Google Scholar
Sanson, A., Smart, D., Prior, M., Oberklaid, F., & Pedlow, R. (1994). The structure of temperament from three to seven years: Age, sex, and sociodemographic influences. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 233252Google Scholar
Sattler, J.S. (1988). Assessment of children (3rd ed.) San Diego, CA: Jerome S. Sattler.Google Scholar
Sewell, J., Oberklaid, F., Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Kyrios, M. (1988). Temperament in Australian toddlers. Australian Paediatric Journal, 24, 343345.Google ScholarPubMed
Silva, P.A., & Stanton, W.R. (Eds.). (1996). From child to adult: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Auckland, NZ: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Smart, D., Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (1998, October). Persistence of learning difficulties from 7-8 to 13-14 years. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of The Australian Psychological Society, Melbourne.Google Scholar
Smart, D., Sanson, A., & Prior, M. (1996). Connections between reading disability and behaviour problems: Testing temporal and causal hypotheses. journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 363383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, J., & Prior, M. (1995). Temperament and stress resilience in school-aged children: A within families study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 168179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spanier, G.B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 1528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, A., Chess, S., & Birch, H.G. (1968). Temperament and behavior disorders in children. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Thomas, A., Chess, S., Birch, H.G., Hertzig, M.E., & Korn, S. (1963). Behavioral individuality in early childhood. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
Waring, S., Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Smart, D. (1996). Predictors of “Recovery” from reading disability. Australian Journal of Psychology, 48, 160166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wechsler, D. (1974). The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Werner, E.E., & Smith, R.S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Werner, E.E., & Smith, R.S. (1989). A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: Adams-Bannister-Cox.Google Scholar
Walker, H.M., & McConnell, S.R. (1988). Walker-McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 31 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-76cb886bbf-7fh6l Total loading time: 0.673 Render date: 2021-01-20T10:17:56.742Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Temperamental influences on psychosocial adjustment: From infancy to adolescence
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Temperamental influences on psychosocial adjustment: From infancy to adolescence
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Temperamental influences on psychosocial adjustment: From infancy to adolescence
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *