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The peace of 1360–1369 and Anglo-French musical relations*

  • Andrew Wathey (a1)

Extract

The Treaty of Brétigny, concluded in May 1360, inaugurated the longest period of peace between England and France that the century had yet seen. Although the English success in this agreement later turned out to be less than complete, the king and higher nobility in England could now look to the consolidation of their position in the overseas dependencies of Brittany, Gascony and Ponthieu, to the enjoyment of their new-found wealth at home, and to a superficially more amicable relationship with French magnates. External relations were thus transformed, and the period between 1360 and 1369 also saw a fundamental change in the accessibility in England of French musical culture and in the opportunities for contacts with French musicians.

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1 For what follows see Harriss, G. L., King, Parliament and Public Finance in Medieval England to 1369 (Oxford, 1975), pp. 466508; Le Patourel, J., ‘The Treaty of Brétigny, 1360’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 10 (1960), pp. 1939. Among the numerous political narratives of this period see Tuck, A., Crown and Nobility, 1272–1461: Political Conflict in Late Medieval England (London, 1985), pp. 135–9, 158–65; Allmand, C., The Hundred Years War: England and France at War, c. 1300-c. 1450 (Cambridge, 1988), pp. 1722; Tout, T. F., Chapters in the Administrative History of Medieval England: the Wardrobe, the Chamber and the Small Seals, 6 vols. (Manchester, 19201933), iii, pp. 231–65; Delachenal, R., Histoire de Charles v, 5 vols. (Paris, 19091931), ii, pp. 193265.

2 Rotuli Parliamentorum, 7 vols. (London, 17831832), ii, p. 283.

3 See Delachenal, , Histoire de Charles v, iii, pp. 551–4.

4 For what follows see Wathey, A., ‘Dunstable in France’, Music & Letters, 67 (1986), pp. 34; Wathey, A., Music in the Royal and Noble Households in Late Medieval England: Studies of Sources and Patronage (New York and London, 1989), pp. 53, 56–7.

5 See for the 1338 expedition c 81/1743/65; The Wardrobe Book of William de Norwell, 12 July 1338–27 May 1340, ed. Lyon, B. et al. , Académie Royale de Belgique: Commission Royale d'Histoire (Brussels, 1983), pp. 352–3, 391–2, 303–5; for the Brittany expedition see e 36/204, fol. 108. For chaplains and clerks with the 1346 expedition see e 101/391/9, fols. 4r-v and, for wages paid in arrears after the expedition, e 101/390/12 passim; extracts are printed in Wrottesley, G., Crécy and Calais, from the Original Records in the Public Record Office (London, 1898), pp. 212–14, 215; A protection for Queen Philippa's chaplains for this expedition is c 81/1746/115. For the expedition of 1359–60 see e 101/393/11, fols. 76v, 88–90v.

6 See Handbook of British Chronology, 3rd edn, ed. Fryde, E. B., Greenway, D. E., Porter, S. and Roy, I., Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks 2 (London, 1986) [hereafter HBC], p. 39.

7 See Barber, R., Edward Prince of Wales and Aquitaine: A Biography of the Black Prince (London, 1978), pp. 177–81, 184; Cokayne, G. E., The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom Extant Extinct or Dormant, 12 vols. (London, 19101956), iii, pp. 435–7. See also Tout, , Chapters, v, pp. 291–2. For an account of the entry made by the prince into the Abbey of St Seurin, Bordeaux, on 16 September 1355, ‘cum magno exercitu comitum et baronum Anglie’, see Brutails, J.-A., Cartulaire de l'église collégiale Saint-Seurin de Bordeaux (Bordeaux, 1897), pp. 45; see also Hewitt, H. J., The Black Prince's Expedition of 1355–1357 (Manchester, 1958), pp. 43–4, 140, Appendix 2 below sub Oxwick, William, and Mullot, H. and Poux, J., ‘Nouvelles recherches sur l'itinéraire du Prince Noir à travers les pays de l'Aude’, Annales du Midi, 21 (1909), pp. 298311. For later ceremonial see among much else Renouard, Y., Bordeaux sous les rois d'Angleterre, Histoire de Bordeaux 3 (Bordeaux, 1965), pp. 386, 388.

8 For example the remarks, made in the context of the prince's attempts in 1368 to levy the fouage in Aquitaine, in Chroniques de J. Froissart, ed. Luce, S. et al. , Société de l'Histoire de France (Paris, 1869–), vii, p. 66. See also La vie du Prince Noir by Chandos Herald, ed. Tyson, D. B., Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie 147 (Tübingen, 1976), pp. 91–2.

9 London, British Library, MS Cotton Julius c. iv, fols. 288–91 (Appendix 1, Document 1). See also CPL: Petitions, i, pp. 454–6; Urbain: LC, i, pp. 478–9 (42394250). Warrants for protections for clerks joining this expedition are c 81/1713/19 and c 81/1713/76. For other clerics with the prince as administrators in Aquitaine in these years see Chaplais, P., ‘The Chancery of Guyenne, 1289–1453’, Studies Presented to Sir Hilary Jenkinson, ed. Davies, J. Conway (Oxford, 1957), pp. 85–9; Tout, , Chapters, v, pp. 289400passim.

10 On minstrel schools see Greene, G., ‘The Schools of Minstrelsy and the Choir School Tradition’, Studies in Music from the University of Western Ontario, 2 (1977), pp. 3140; Gushee, L., ‘Minstrel’, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Sadie, S., 20 vols. (London, 1980) [hereafter NG], xii, p. 350; Wright, C., Music at the Court of Burgundy, 1364–1419: A Documentary History, Musicological Studies 28 (Henryville, Ottawa and Binningen, 1979), pp. 32–4. A number of references are collected in Wilkins, N., Music in the Age of Chaucer, Chaucer Studies 1 (Woodbridge, 1979), pp. 134–5. For other details of minstrel schools see c 81/1730/59 (cf. Table 1); Brussels, Archives Générales du Royaume, Chambre des Comptes [hereafter AGR, CC] 2702 (Receiver of the Count of Flanders, 1374), fol. 19; Izarn, H., Le compte des recettes et dépenses du roi de Navarre en France et en Normandie de 1367 à 1370 (Paris, 1885), p. 348, and below n. 52. See also Schofield, B., ‘The Adventures of an English Minstrel and his Varlet’, The Musical Quarterly, 35 (1949), pp. 361–76; Gómez, M. C., ‘La musique à la maison royale de Navarre à la fin du Moyen-Age et le chantre Johan Robert’, Musica Disciplina, 41 (1987), pp. 113–15.

11 For the 1385 gathering see c 81/1355/35, a protection of 23 February 1385 for two minstrels of Anne of Bohemia ‘daler a lescole en diverses parties de nostre roialme’. For that of 1390 see Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale [hereafter BN], MS fonds fr. 26954 (p.o. 470), dossier ‘Bourgeois’ (10443), no. 1, a warrant of Louis Duke of Touraine of 5 October 1390 for the expenses of his minstrels ‘et pour les aider a abiller et mettre en bon estat pour aler en Engleterre a la feste’; see also MS fonds fr. 28636 (p.o. 2152), dossier ‘Orléans’ (48873), no. 66.

12 See Table 1. For Massyet le Harper, bringing news to Queen Philippa from the Black Prince in Spain, see e 403/433, m. 16 (2 December 1367); see also e 404/7/44/8. For the fees of royal minstrels in this period see e 403/401–E 403/438 passim.

13 See Table 1, and Carte, T., Catalogue des rolles gascons, normans et françois conservés dans les archives de la Tour de Londres, 2 vols. (Paris, 1743), ii, pp. 81ff.

14 See generally c 81/380–416, c 81/908–27, c 81/1334–6 and Carte, , Catalogue des rolles, ii, pp. 81100. For monastic representatives see c 81/1335/52, 54, 57; c 81/1336/4, 13, 15.

15 See Palmer, J.J.N. and Wells, A. P., ‘Ecclesiastical Reform and the Politics of the Hundred Years War during the Pontificate of Urban v (1362–70)’, War, Literature and Politics in the Late Middle Ages, ed. Allmand, C. T. (Liverpool, 1976), pp. 179ff.

16 For parts of what follows see Wathey, , Music in the Royal and Noble Households, pp. 2, 65–6; see also the cautionary remarks in Fallows, D., ‘The Contenance angloise: English Influence on Continental Composers of the Fifteenth Century’, Renaissance Studies, 1 (1987), pp. 189208.

17 Rotuli Parliamentorum, ii, p. 285, ‘Et en presence de lui estoit pleinement monstre son estat …et a quele somme les revenuz de sa terre se extendent; les fees et annuitees desqueux il estoit chargez; les grantz sommes de payementz q'il avoit fait pur l'establissement de Gascoigne, de Caleis, de diverses chastelx et villes devers le north; et pur les guerres de Irlande, et aillours; et les custages et dons faites as pluseurs estranges venantz devers lui pur divers causes’. For what follows see Harriss, , King, Parliament and Public Finance, pp. 468–70, 478–9.

18 Harriss, , King, Parliament and Public Finance, pp. 471ff; for what follows.

19 See for example Prestwich, M., The Three Edwards: War and State in England 1272–1377 (London, 1980), pp. 276ff, see also Tout, , Chapters, iii, pp. 231ff.

20 See for what follows Jones, M., Ducal Brittany, 1364–1399: Relations with England and France during the Reign of Duke John iv (Oxford, 1970), pp. 1516; Tucoo-Chala, P., Gaston Fébus et la Vicomté de Béarn (1343–1391) (Bordeaux, 1959), pp. 93–9; Chaplais, P., English Medieval Diplomatic Practice, Part 1: Documents and Interpretation, 2 vols. (London, 1982), ii, pp.511–14. See also Rymer, T., Foedera, Conventiones, Litterae etc …, 4 vols. in 7, Record Commission (London, 18161869), iii/2, pp. 606, 637, 656, 671, 686.

21 See Palmer, J. J. N., ‘England, France, the Papacy and the Flemish Succession, 1361–9’, Journal of Medieval History, 2 (1976), pp. 339–64; Ormrod, M., ‘Edward iii and his Family’, Journal of British Studies, 26 (1987), pp. 412–14; Trautz, F., Die Könige von England und das Reich, 1272–1377 (Heidelberg, 1961), pp. 394–7; Delachenal, , Histoire de Charles v, i, pp. 499510; Quicke, F., Les Pays-Bas à la veille de la période bourguignonne, 1356–1384 (Brussels, 1947), pp. 7683, 140–5. For other documents relating to the marriage see Chaplais, , English Medieval Diplomatic Practice, ii, pp. 514–15, 731–3.

22 See Palmer and Wells, ‘Ecclesiastical Reform and the Politics of the Hundred Years War’, pp. 169–89.

23 See Trautz, , Die Könige von England und das Reich, pp. 396–9; Palmer, ‘England, France, the Papacy and the Flemish Succession’, pp. 357–9. For the marriage treaty see Foedera, iii/2, p. 827. The duke travelled to Milan via Paris, where he received an extended welcome from Charles v, the dukes of Berry and Burgundy and from Margaret, dowager Countess of Flanders; see Lehoux, F., Jean de France, duc de Berri: sa vie, son action politique (1340–1416), 3 vols. (Paris, 19661968), i, pp. 205–6. For protections and other documents connected with the journey see Foedera, iii/2, p. 845; c 76/51, mm. 3, 5–9. The duke's chapel furnishings, including ‘cynk peire de vestimentz pur la chapelle ove tout lapparaill … livres, croices, reliqs, ioialx et autres mesnues necessaires’, were taken to Milan via Sluys by staff of the duke's wardrobe, who left London in March 1368; see c 81/915/22.

24 Ormrod, ‘Edward iii and his Family’, pp. 414–15.

25 See Delachenal, , Histoire de Charles v, ii, pp. 54–9, 339–45; Cazelles, R., Société politique, noblesse et couronne sous Jehan le Bon et Charles v, Société de l'École des Chartes: Mémoires et Documents 28 (Geneva, 1982), pp. 428–32; Ormrod, , op. cit., p. 412. See also Lehoux, , Jean de France, i, pp. 170–2.

26 See Chaplais, P., ‘Some Documents Regarding the Fulfilment and Interpretation of the Treaty of Brétigny (1361–1369)’, Camden Miscellany xix, Camden Third Series 80 (London, 1952), pp. 78; Delachenal, , op. cit., ii, pp. 344–50. See also Chaplais, , English Medieval Diplomatic Practice, ii, pp. 704–5; Cazelles, , Société politique, pp. 447–9.

27 See Lehoux, , Jean de France, i, p. 194, n. 4; a letter of John ii written on his release in July 1360 was also made to echo this sentiment: ‘notre frere le roy d'Angleterre et notre soeur la Reine nous ont grandement honorez’ (BN, MS nouv. acq. fr. 7376, fols. 434r–v). For the statement see Harriss, , King, Parliament and Public Finance, p. 530. The spending of John ii and the princes was also heavy during these years. See Douët-d'Arcq, L., Comptes de l'argenterie des rois de France au xive siècle, Société de l'Histoire de France (Paris, 1851), pp. 203–78; Chantilly, Musée Condé, Archives, ser. i, i/1, fols. 18–51 (printed with errors in Due d'Aumale, H., Notes et documents relatifs à Jean, roi de France et à sa captivité en Angleterre, Miscellanies of the Philobiblon Society 2 (London, 18551856), pp. 82160); Moranvillé, H., ‘Extraits de journaux du trésor (1345–1419)’, Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, 49 (1888), p. 371. See also British Library, Add. Charter 3332 (a bond for goods supplied to the Duke of Anjou, 11 April 1361); Paris, Archives Nationales [hereafter AN], kk 13c (Journal du Trésor, 1358–9); BN, MS fonds fr. 26003, no. 1036.

28 See for example Lehoux, , Jean de France, i, pp. 165–6; p. 163, n. 4. See also Douët-d'Arcq, , Comptes, pp. 249, 270.

29 See Barber, R., ‘Jean Froissart and Edward the Black Prince’, Froissart: Historian, ed. Palmer, J. J. N. (Woodbridge, 1981), pp. 2535. For Philippa's household see Tout, , Chapters, v, pp. 250–9, and Given-Wilson, C., The Royal Household and the King's Affinity: Service, Politics and Finance in England 1360–1413 (New Haven and London, 1986), pp. 92–3; Given-Wilson, , ‘The Merger of Edward iii's and Queen Philippa's Households, 1360–1369’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 51 (1978), pp. 183–7. Contemporary concern about the expenditure of Philippa's household was echoed by the eighteenth-century annotator of Manchester, John Rylands University Library, MS Latin 237 (an account of household debts), e.g. ‘mirandum est quam vasta piscium consumpta fuit’ (fol. 19), and ‘excesiva provisionem quantitas pro pulletria Reginae Phillippae’ (fol. 27).

30 For what follows see Harriss, , King, Parliament and Public Finance, pp. 476–7; Tuck, , Crown and Nobility, pp. 143–4. See also Walker, S. K., ‘John of Gaunt and his Retainers, 1361–1399’ (D.Phil. dissertation, University of Oxford, 1986), pp. 65ff, 75–8.

31 For example Goodman, A., ‘John of Gaunt: Paradigm of the Late Fourteenth-Century Crisis’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 37 (1987), pp. 138–9; Hewitt, , The Black Prince's Expedition, pp. 215–16. For Edward's henchmen see e 361/4, m. 4d.

32 See Wathey, , Music in the Royal and Noble Households, pp. 176–7; Walker, ‘John of Gaunt and his Retainers’, p. 25; Tout, , Chapters, v, pp. 289400.

33 A similar practice in the indentures of John of Gaunt is described by Walker, ‘John of Gaunt and his Retainers’, p. 35.

34 For household numbers at Christmas 1368, see e 101/395/10, e 101/395/2 passim, and in particular e 101/395/2 (214): ‘Nous vous envoions close desouz nostre prive seal un roule … fesant mension de les persones de nous et de nostre treschere compaigne la roine et de sys centz et noef persones esceantz de la tenaill de nostre dit houstel’. The assessments of the size of the royal household in Given-Wilson, , The Royal Household, pp. 3941, 278, based solely on the account books of the Keeper and Controller of the Household Wardrobe, are misleading for this period.

35 See for example Jones, , Ducal Brittany, pp. 2259.

36 c 81/916/21; see Appendix 1, Document 2. It is, however, clear that letters of this type were themselves occasionally used as safe-conducts; see, for example, Paris, AN, p 13581, no.498, a warrant to issue a safe-conduct for the return to France of two servants of the Duke of Bourbon. For protections and safe-conducts see, generally, Chaplais, , English Medieval Diplomatic Practice, i, pp. 308–27; Crow, M. M. and Olson, C. C., eds., Chaucer Life Records (Oxford, 1966), pp. 28–9, 64–6.

37 Lists of the clerks of Philippa's chapel survive for 1330–1 (Manchester, John Rylands University Library, MS Latin 234, fols. 14v–15, 23–4) and 1344–5 (E 101/390/8, fols. 3,7). See also London, Society of Antiquaries, MS 208, fol. 2v (1351–2); Rylands, MS Latin 235, fols. 7, 17–18v (1331–2); MS Latin 236, fol. 3v (1357–8). For Terrico de Hanonia, a clerk of the chapel, see sc 6/1091/4 (1340–1); see also Ellis, R., Catalogue of Seals in the Public Record Office: Personal Seals, 2 vols. (London, 19781981), ii, p. 22. For Philippa's chapel furnishings in 1330–1, including service books, see e 101/385/5, m. 2d.

38 See Given-Wilson, ‘The Merger of Edward iii's and Queen Philippa's Households’, pp. 183–7.

39 For the building projects undertaken for Philippa at Sheen see Colvin, H. M., The History of the King's Works, 6 vols. (London, 19631982), ii, pp. 9941002; for Eltham see p. 934.

40 For example the grants of lands and annuities made to William de Ireland, variously described as a clerk in both chapels, in CPR 1364–1367, pp. 100, 396; see also BPR, iv, p. 478, for a gift from the Black Prince. For chaplains of the king and Lionel, Earl of Ulster and later Duke of Clarence, presented to benefices by Philippa, see CPR 1367–1370, p. 298; sc 1/40/30. For a gift made to a chaplain of Queen Philippa by the Countess of Ulster, see London, British Library, Add. MS 18632, fol. 101 (12 January 1358). For Aleyn and Nottingham see CPL: Petitions, i, p. 416; see also Urbain: LC, ii, p. 366 (77067707).

41 e 101/396/2, fol. 35.

42 For this and what follows see the sources cited in Table 2 as Lists e–i, and E 101/395/2 (202), (207).

43 See c 81/916/1; for others see c 81/916/9, 23, 34.

44 See HBC, p. 563. For what follows see Rotuli Parliamentorum, ii, pp. 294–5; Harriss, , King, Parliament and Public Finance, pp. 469–70.

45 See Nelis, H., Documents relatifs au Grand Schisme, iii: Suppliques el lettres de Clément vii, Analecta Vaticano-Belgica 13 (Rome, 1934), p. 336, no. 1881.

46 See Günther, U., ‘Matheus de Sancto Johanne’, NG, xi, p. 820, and ‘Zur Biographie einiger Komponisten der Ars Subtilior’, Archiv für Musikwissenschaft, 21 (1964), pp. 180–5; Tomasello, A., Music and Ritual at Papal Avignon, 1309–1403, UMI Studies in Musicology 75 (Ann Arbor, 1983), pp. 252–3. See also Hoppin, R. H. and Clercx, S., ‘Notes biographiques sur quelques musiciens français du xive siècle’, Les colloques de Wégimont ii, l'Ars Nova: recueil d'études sur la musique du xive siècle, Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophic et Lettres de l'Université de Liège 149 (Paris, 1959), p. 76. A number of the other chaplains and clerks mentioned in the supplication (Hanquet, K., Documents relatifs au Grand Schisme, I: Suppliques de Clément vii (1378–1379), Analecta Vaticano-Belgica 8 (Rome, 1924), p. 109, no. 347) were serving in the duke's chapel by May 1377; of these at least one, Jehan Lenfant, also moved to the papal chapel following the duke's death in 1384 (Paris, BN, MS fonds fr. 27509 (p.o. 1025), dossier ‘de Douxmesnil’ (23456), no. 3; Tomasello, p. 244). The ‘Mahiet’ who was a clerk in the chapel of the duchess of Anjou from September 1370 (Paris, BN, MS fonds fr. 11863, fol. 26) cannot be identified with Matheus de Sancto Johanne; see Hanquet, , op. cit., p. 175.

47 See BN, MS fonds fr. 27509 (p.o. 1025), dossier ‘de Douxmesnil’ (23456), nos. 3, 7, 8.

48 ‘Zur Biographie’, pp. 183–4, citing Dubrulle, M., Les registres d'Urbain v (1362–1363): recueil des Bulles de ce Pape (Paris, 1926), p. 28, no.290 (Urbain: LC, ii, p. 421 (8179)), after Clercx and Hoppin, ‘Notes biographiques’, p. 76. For this Matheus, a Cistercian monk, who was successively Abbot of St John in Lamis, in the diocese of Sispontino, and of Casenove, in the diocese of Penne, see also Urbain: LC, iii, p. 624 (12500), v, pp. 231 (17238), 377 (17816).

49 ‘Matheus de Sancto Johanne’, p. 820; both this and Reaney, G., ‘The Manuscript Chantilly, Musée Condé 1047’, Musica Disciplina, 9 (1955), p. 72, follow the confused reading of de Laborde, L., Les ducs de Bourgogne: études sur les lettres, les arts et l'industrie pendant la xve siècle …, 3 vols. (Paris, 18491852), iii, pp. 46, 357, in Pagès, A., La poésie française en Catalogne du xiiie siècle à la fin du xve, Bibliothèque Méridionale 23 (Paris and Toulouse, 1936), p. 30, n. 3. Mathieu appears in the account of the argentier of Charles Duke of Orléans for 1455 (Paris, AN, kk 271, fol. 23v); the chapel expenses for 1389 are printed in Laborde (p. 46) from BN, MS fonds fr. 28636 (p.o. 2152), dossier ‘Orleans’, no. 45. Louis de France was Duke of Touraine in 1389.

50 See Hanquet, , Documents relatifs au Grand Schisme, i, p. 109, no. 347.

51 See Storey-Challenger, S. B., L'administration anglaise du Ponthieu après le traité de Brétigny, 1361–1369, Études Picardes 4 (Abbeville, 1975), pp. 101–67; Carte, , Catalogue des rolles, ii, pp. 88, 95–9.

52 See c 81/915/19 (Jehan de Pountoyse; cf. Table 1); Paris, BN, Collection Clairambault 215, no. 83, a warrant (Nîmes, 28 October 1374) to pay Jehan de Pontoize and two others for good service ‘et aussi pour aler aux escolles et eulx sen retourner devers nous’. See also Prost, B., Inventaires mobiliers et extraits des comptes des ducs de Bourgogne de la maison de Valois (1363–1477), 2 vols. (Paris, 19021904), i, p. 241.

53 Hughes, A. and Bent, M., eds., The Old Hall Manuscript, 3 vols., Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 46 (n.p., 19691973), i/2, pp. 419–23; iii, pp. 43–4.

54 See Bent, M., ‘The Progeny of Old Hall: More Leaves from a Royal English Choirbook’, Gordon Athol Anderson (1929–1981): In memoriam, von seinen Studenten, Freunden und Kollegen, 2 vols., ed. Dittmer, L., Musicological Studies 39 (Henryville, Ottawa and Binningen, 1984), pp. 154, and for what follows pp. 7ff. See also Bowers, R., ‘Some Observations on the Life and Career of Lionel Power’, Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, 102 (19751976), pp. 109–10; Wathey, A., ‘The Production of Books of Liturgical Polyphony’, Book Production and Publishing in Britain, 1375–1475, ed. Pearsall, D. and Griffiths, J. (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 151–5.

55 NG, xi, p. 820; Bent, ‘The Progeny’, p. 6.

56 See Hughes and Bent, iii, p. 44, ‘Practicus insignis gallicus sub gallicis hemus hunc discantavit cantum, sed post reformavit latini lingua anglis sepius fit amena, reddendo deo gracias’.

57 Les harmonistes du xive siècle (Lille, 1869), pp. 12ff.

58 ‘A Fourteenth-Century Ceremonial Motet and its Composer’, Acta Musicologica, 29 (1957), pp. 6575. For transmissions see Bent, M., ‘The Transmission of English Music 1300–1500: Some Aspects of Repertory and Presentation’, Studien zur Tradition in der Musik: Kurt von Fischer zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Eggebrecht, H. H. and Lütolf, M. (Munich, 1973), pp. 70–2. Recent discoveries include London, British Library, MS Royal 7 a. vi, London, Public Record Office, e 163/22/1/24, and Yoxford, Cockfield Hall, MS s.s., which preserves the lower two parts of Sub Arturo. This source was discovered by Adrian Bassett and first described by Lefferts, P., The Motet in England in the Fourteenth Century, UMI Studies in Musicology 94 (Ann Arbor, 1986), pp. 300–1. For Sub Arturo plebs see also ibid., pp. 300–1; Gómez, M. C., ‘Une version à cinq voix du motet Apollinis eclipsatur/Zodiacum signis dans le manuscrit E-Bcen 853’, Musica Disciplina, 39 (1985), pp. 1519. For editions see Bent, M., ed., Two Fourteenth-Century Motets (Newton Abbot, 1977), pp. 17; Günther, U., ed., The Motets of the Manuscripts Chantily, Musée Condé, 564 (olim 1047) and Modena, Biblioteca Estense, α M. 5,24 (olim lat. 568), Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 39 (n.p., 1965), pp. 49ff; see also Harrison, F. LI., ed., Motets of French Provenance, Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century 5 (Paris and Monaco, 1968), pp. 172ff.

59 ‘A Fourteenth-Century Ceremonial Motet’, pp. 67–8.

60 For example by Bent, ‘The Transmission of English Music’, pp. 70–1.

61 Fixed Points in the Chronology of English Fourteenth-Century Polyphony’, Music & Letters, 71 (1990), forthcoming; this study includes the best available edition (incorporating the readings of the Yoxford source) of the texts of the motet.

62 For details of what follows see Appendix 1, Documents 3–6, and Appendix 2, passim.

63 See Hockey, S. F., ed., The Register of William Edington, Bishop of Winchester, 1346–1366, 2 vols., Hampshire Record Series 7–8 (Southampton, 19861987), ii, pp. 105209.

64 See Trowell, ‘A Fourteenth-Century Ceremonial Motet’, pp. 69–71, and Bowers, ‘Fixed Points’.

65 See CPL: Petitions, i, p. 509. Hungerford had suffered at the hands of John Dodeford, canon of Carlisle, with whom he had attempted to exchange his position for ‘a Certain vicarage’. It seems, however, that he retained possession of the priory; conclusive evidence of a vacancy emerges only after Hungerford's death, when Dodeford renewed his attempts to secure presentation. News of the vacancy appears in a brief notice in the register of John Buckingham, Bishop of Lincoln (Lincolnshire Archives Office, Episcopal Register xii, fol. 88), and in the royal licence of 23 January 1370 granted to the priory to elect a successor (CPR 1367–1370, p. 337). See also Page, W. et al. , eds., The Victoria County History of the Counties of England: Oxfordshire (Oxford, 1907–)[hereafter VCH, Oxon.], ii, pp. 98–9.

66 Vatican City, Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Reg. Aven. 171, fol. 302 (Appendix 1, Document 7); see Urbain: LC, ix, p. 517, no. 27776.

67 In November 1367 Hungerford nominated attorneys in England for two years while he remained overseas (CPR 1367–1370, p. 30); his dealings abroad incurred considerable expenses, for which he attempted to use the assets of the Priory of St Frideswide as security until prevented in May 1368 (CPR 1367–1370, p. 120, printed in full in The Cartulary of the Monastery of St Frideswide at Oxford, 2 vols., Oxford Historical Society 28, 31 (Oxford, 18951896), ii, pp. 373–4). For Langham see Emden, A. B., A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500, 3 vols. (Oxford, 19571959), ii, pp. 1095–7; Harvey, B., Westminster Abbey and its Estates in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1977), pp. 42, 95ff.

68 See Urbain: LC, viii, p. 21 (no. 23121).

69 Thomas de Aston, Richard Bannebury, Robert Coueley, Thomas Forester, John Gilleti, Richard Melford, John Morite, Thomas de Southam, Robert de Suardeby and John Walkelyn are described as Langham's chaplains (Urbain: LC, viii, pp. 75, 89, 104, 465; ix, pp. 74, 468; CPL, iv, p. 194; Tihon, C., ed., Lettres de Grégoire xi (1371–1378), 4 vols., Analecta Vaticano-Belgica 11, 20, 25, 28 (Rome, 19581975), i, p. 89; ii, p. 640). John Aspullis, Richard de Croxton, Thomas Blakelake and William de Humberston appear as Langham's clerks (Urbain: LC, ix, pp. 32, 71, 89, 92).

70 See Lettres de Grégoire XI, i pp. 84, 89 (nos. 144, 157). For Capel, styled here ‘familiario suo ac magistro capelle sue’, see also Tomasello, , Music and Ritual, p. 237.

71 See for example the remarks in The Motets of the Manuscripts Chantilly, Musée Condé, 564 (olim 1047) and Modena, Biblioteca Estense, α M. 5, 24 (olim lat. 568), Günther, d., p. lii; see also Motets of French Provenance, ed. Harrison, , p. xv.

72 For what follows see Tucoo-Chala, , Gaston Fébus, pp. 302–16. See also Valois, N., ‘Louis d'Anjou et le Grand Schisme d'Occident’, Revue des Questions Historiques, 51 (1892), pp. 115–58; Contamine, P., Guerre, état et société à la fin du moyen âge: Études sur les armées des rois de France, 1337–1494, École Pratique des Hautes Études: Sorbonne vie Section, Civilisations et Sociétés 24 (Paris, 1972), pp. 151–78; Delachenal, , Histoire de Charles v, iv, pp. 245–66.

73 See Tucoo-Chala, , Gaston Fébus, pp. 323–8; Lehoux, , Jean de France, ii, pp. 16109.

74 For the court of Fébus see Tucoo-Chala, pp. 277–81. For Chantilly, see Reaney, G., Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music (c. 1320–1400), Répertoire International des Sources Musicales B iv2 (Munich and Duisburg, 1969), pp. 128–60; ‘Sources, MS’, NG, xvii, p. 663.

75 See Apel, W., ed., French Secular Compositions of the Fourteenth Century, 3 vols., Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 53 (n.p., 19701972), i, pp. 194–6, no. 100; ii, pp. 74–5, no. 162. See also Günther, U., ‘Eine Ballade auf Mathieu de Foix’, Musica Disciplina, 19 (1965), pp. 6981, especially pp. 71ff; Brown, H. M., ‘A Ballade for Mathieu de Foix: Style and Structure in a Composition by Trebor’, Musica Disciplina, 41 (1987), pp. 75107. I am grateful to Christopher Page for the suggestion that the text of the ballade Le mont Aön, recently attributed to Solage (by Lefferts, P. M., ‘Subtilitas in the Tonal Language of Fumeux fume’, Early Music, 16 (1988), p. 179), refers to the Château Moncade. See also the remarks linking Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 115, to Fébus's court in Günther, U., ‘Problems of Dating in Ars Nova and Ars Subtilior’, L'Ars nova italiana del trecento iv, ed. Ziino, A. (Certaldo, 1978), pp. 291–3.

76 See MS fonds fr. 27509 (p.o. 1025), dossier ‘de Douxmesnil’ (23456), no. 4.

77 See for example Delachenal, , Histoire de Charles v, iv, pp. 246ff. See also Paris, BN, MS fonds fr. 26931 (p.o. 447), dossier ‘Boulet’ (10115), no. 3, a bill for the payment of chapel wages for January 1371 (Toulouse, 23 February 1371). Sizable groups of chaplains also accompanied the duke's expeditions to La Réole in 1374, to Avignon in 1375 and 1380, and to Rodez in 1377 (MS fonds fr. 28858 (p.o. 2374), dossier ‘de Prechac’ (53267), no. 2; MS fonds fr. 27509 (p.o. 1025), dossier ‘de Douxmesnil’, nos. 2, 3, 7, 8). Two payments to François de Furnes, styled ‘maistre des orgues de nostre chapelle’, were made in August 1370 and February 1371 at Cahors and Montauban (MS fonds fr. 27743 (p.o. 1259), dossier ‘de Furnes’ (28197), no. 5). For the duchess's household, see Paris, AN, kk 242, fols. 72r-v, 93v-96, 103v-104v. For the chaplains and clerks of the household chapel of Louis Duke of Anjou, see also Wright, , Music at the Court of Burgundy, p. 55; BN, MS fonds fr. 26852 (p.o. 368), dossier ‘Blez’ (8037), no. 3; MS fonds fr. 29325 (p.o. 2841), dossier ‘Thury’ (63032), no. 2; MS fonds fr. 11863, fols. 25–9; MS fonds fr. 26014, no. 2075.

78 See Tucoo-Chala, , Gaston Fébus, pp. 305–6, 311, 336, 353. See also Armitage-Smith, S., ed., John of Gaunt's Register, 2 vols., Camden Third Series 20–1 (London, 1911), ii, pp. 264–5, 307; for gifts to made by Gaunt to Fébus see ii, p. 278.

79 See Wright, , Music at the Court of Burgundy, pp. 1217; Foedera, iii/1, p. 436; Douët-d'Arcq, , Comptes, pp. 222, 259–60, 265. See also Cazelles, , Société politique, pp. 366–9, 447–9.

80 See e 403/401, m. 16 (sub 3 July 1360), ‘Clerici et ministralli Regis Francie. Tribus ministrallis Regis Francie, in denariis eis liberatis per manus Johannis Says, militis, de dono regis per breve de privato sigillo inter mandata de hoc termino, xx li. Potage et sociis suis clericis de capella Regis Francie et cuidam Regi haraldorum de Francia, in denariis eis liberatis de dono regis per breve de privato sigillo inter mandata de hoc termino, x li’. For the later gift see e 403/403, m. 38 (sub 8 March 1361), ‘Ministralli Regis Francie. In denariis solutis apud Cales’ diversis armigeris valletis et ministrallis Johannis Regis Francie de dono Regis, videlicet … diversis ministrallis Regis Francie, xl li…. Potage clerico capelle, lxvi s. viii d…. iiiior ministrallis Ducis de Berry et Dauvergen' in precio xl regalis,… vi li. xiii s. iiii d…. tribus ministrallis in precio x regalis,… xxxiij s. iiii d’; see also the warrant, e 404/7/ 43/18 (Calais, 29 October 1360) ‘… A Potage clerc de la chapelle meisme nostre frere, vint escuz’. Potage returned to England in the spring of 1360 (Douët-d'Arcq, , Comptes, pp. 240, 245, 248). An Henri Potage was the senior clerk of the chapel of Louis de Mâle, Count of Flanders, by 1374, and a clerk of the Duke of Burgundy, 1384–91 (Brussels, AGR, CC 2702, fol. 18; Wright, , op. cit., pp. 21, 56–7, 66, 72, 212–18). For further gifts made at Calais see Chaplais, , English Medieval Diplomatic Practice, ii, p. 825.

81 Douët-d'Arcq, , Comptes, p. 273 (sub 4 07 1360).

82 See Foedera, iii/1, p. 358.

83 For the treaty see Foedera, iii/2, pp. 750–1.

84 See for the gifts e 403/422, m. 22 (sub 21 June 1365); e 403/421, m. 6 (sub 31 October 1364) ‘In denariis solutis apud Dovorr' officiaribus Comitis Flandrie de dono Regis videlicet sex clericis de capella ipsius Comitis, xx li…. ministrallis domini Lodevici, v marcarum; iiijor regibus haraldorum, xx marcarum’. The count's clerici and cantores, together with an unnamed papal chaplain, also received substantial gifts of plate from the Duke of Brabant at Brussels early in 1364 (AGR, CC 2350, p. 136).

85 See AGR, CC 2351, fol. 71, ‘Item domino Egidio de Teruwane cantori comitis Flandrie venienti Brux’ pro curialitate xxm In' Junii, vi mot.'; see also Pinchart, A., ‘La cour de Jeanne et Wenceslas et les arts en Brabant pendant la seconde moitié du xive siècle’, Revue Trimestrielle, 6 (1855), p. 27.

86 Motets of French Provenance, ed. Harrison, , pp. 5061, 181–4 (nos. 9, 9a, 33). See also Gómez, ‘Une version’, pp. 14–29; a further, English, source of Apollinis, not noted by Gómez, is Public Record Office, e 163/22/1/24, fol. 2.

1 For the date of this expedition, usually given as February 1363, see Barber, R., ‘Jean Froissart and Edward the Black Prince’, Froissart: Historian, ed. Palmer, J. J. N. (Wood-bridge, 1981), pp. 2930.

2 For whom see Emden, A. B., A Biographical Register of the University of Cambridge to 1500 (Cambridge, 1963), pp. 650–1.

3 Keeper of the Wardrobe, 3 November 1359–26 May 1360 (HBC, p. 80).

4 Easter Term 1362.

5 Keeper of the Wardrobe, 16 December 1358–3 November 1359 (HBC, p. 80).

6 Easter Term 1360.

7 Christmas 1364; see also e 361/4, m. 13.

8 See Urbain: LC, ix, p. 517.

* This article originated as a paper read in different forms at Princeton University and to a meeting of the Royal Musical Association in London in February 1989. For their help and comments I am very grateful to Margaret Bent, Edward Powell and Simon Walker; my thanks also to Roger Bowers, who kindly made available the text of his paper ‘Fixed Points in the Chronology of English Fourteenth-Century Polyphony’ in advance of its publication. The archival work underlying this study was undertaken with the help of support from Downing College, Cambridge, and a grant from the Research Fund of the University of Lancaster. Unpublished documents are in the Public Record Office, London, unless otherwise stated. Crown-Copyright material is here reproduced by permission of the Controller of H.M. Stationery Office.

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