Growing epidemiological, genetic, and clinical neurobiological evidence indicates that
abnormalities in brain development play determining roles in the pathobiology of schizophrenia.
Neuropathological research has made significant progress in delineating cellular and molecular
abnormalities in schizophrenia that have relevance to neurodevelopment. This paper reviews the
neurodevelopmental processes of neurogenesis, neuronal migration, differentiation,
synaptogenesis, neuron and synaptic pruning, and myelination and the reported neuropathological
findings in schizophrenia that may be a consequence of disturbances in these processes. While
many neuropathological findings in schizophrenia are controversial or await confirmation,
reported abnormalities in neuron density, number and morphology, cytoarchitecture, dendritic
arbors and spines, synapse-related proteins, and the well-established absence of gliosis or any
other evidence of neurodegeneration or neural injury all provide support for the
neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.