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The Semantics of Political Integration: Public Debates about the Term ‘Expellees’ in Post-War Western Germany

  • IRIS NACHUM (a1) and SAGI SCHAEFER (a2)

Abstract

In the immediate period following the Second World War the Western occupation zones of Germany received eight million ethnic Germans from Central and Eastern Europe. Initially these newcomers were lumped in Western German discourse under the term ‘refugees’. Yet, within less than a decade, the term ‘expellees’ emerged as a more popular denotation. Scholarship has offered two explanations for this semantic change, emphasising the political influence of both the Allies and the ‘expellee’ leadership. This article presents a complementary reason for this discursive shift. We argue that ‘expellees’ marked the symbolic weight that the ethnic Germans offered as expulsion victims in order to balance out German guilt for Nazi crimes.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Footnotes

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We would like to thank José Brunner (Tel Aviv) and Kobi Kabalek (Jerusalem) as well as the three anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments on an earlier version of this article. Iris Nachum's research leading to this article has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement Number 340124: ʻJudgingHistories: Experience, Judgement, and Representation of World War II in an Age of Globalizationʼ/Principal Investigator: Dan Diner.

Footnotes

References

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1 In this article, the terms West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany) and East Germany (the German Democratic Republic) are used in reference to the period of statehood following 1949, Western occupation zones of Germany and Soviet occupation zone are employed for the pre-state period of 1945–49 and Western Germany and Eastern Germany denominate the time-frame spanning both periods.

2 Jung, Matthias, Niehr, Thomas and Böke, Karin, Ausländer und Migranten im Spiegel der Presse: Ein diskurshistorisches Wörterbuch zur Einwanderung seit 1945 (Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag, 2000), 27.

3 In this article, we refer to this population most often as ‘Germans from the Eastʼ, but also as ‘expellees’. Unless stated differently, these terms refer to this population in its entirety and we do not suggest anything implicitly by interchanging them throughout the text. Other terms were in use in post-war West Germany to refer to the Germans from the East, for instance ʻevacueesʼ (Evakuierte) or ʻdeporteesʼ (Ausgewiesene), but they were less popular and more importantly, less indicative for our analysis here. For this reason, they will not be dealt with in this article.

4 On the Federal Expellee Law, see Wolff, Stefan, The German Question since 1919: An Analysis with Key Documents (Westport: Praeger, 2003), esp. 75–7.

5 Mathias Beer, ʻFlüchtlinge – Ausgewiesene – Neubürger – Heimatvertriebene: Flüchtlingspolitik und Flüchtlingsintegration in Deutschland nach 1945, begriffsgeschichtlich betrachtetʼ, in idem, Martin Kintzinger and Marita Krauss, eds., Migration und Integration: Aufnahme und Eingliederung im historischen Wandel (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1997), 145–67; Nahm, Peter Paul, ʻDer Wille zur Eingliederung und seine Förderungʼ, in Lemberg, Eugen and Edding, Friedrich, eds., Die Vertriebenen in Westdeutschland: Ihre Eingliederung und ihr Einfluss auf Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft, Politik und Geistesleben, vol. 1 (Kiel: Verlag Ferdinand Hirt, 1959), 145 (fn. 1).

6 Schwartz, Michael, Vertriebene und ‘Umsiedlerpolitik’: Integrationskonflikte in den deutschen Nachkriegs-Gesellschaften und die Assimilationsstrategien in der SBZ/DDR 1945 bis 1961 (Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2004), 3; Ther, Philipp, Deutsche und polnische Vertriebene: Gesellschaft und Vertriebenenpolitik in der SBZ/DDR und in Polen 1945–1956 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht Verlag, 1998), 95; Karin Böke, ʻFlüchtlinge und Vertriebene zwischen dem Recht auf die alte Heimat und der Eingliederung in die neue Heimat: Leitvokabeln der Flüchtlingspolitikʼ, in idem, Frank Liedtke and Martin Wengeler, Politische Leitvokabeln in der Adenauer-Ära (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1996), 161; Wengeler, Martin, ʻMultikulturelle Gesellschaft oder Ausländer raus? Der sprachliche Umgang mit der Einwanderung seit 1945ʼ, in idem and Stötzel, Georg, Kontroverse Begriffe: Geschichte des öffentlichen Sprachgebrauchs in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995), 715. On the political activities of the expellee organisations in West Germany, see Salzborn, Samuel, Grenzenlose Heimat: Geschichte, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Vertriebenenverbände (Berlin: Elefanten Press, 2000); Ahonen, Pertti, ‘The German Expellee Organizations: Unity, Division, and Function’, in Borutta, Manuel and Jansen, Jan C., eds., Vertriebene and Pieds-Noirs in Postwar Germany and France: Comparative Perspectives (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016), 115–32.

7 Michael Schwartz, ‘“Vom Umsiedler zum Staatsbürger”: Totalitäres und Subversives in der Sprachpolitik der SBZ/DDR’, in idem, Dierk Hoffmann and Marita Krauss, eds., Vertriebene in Deutschland: Interdisziplinäre Ergebnisse und Forschungsperspektiven (Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2000), 135–7.

8 Moeller, Robert G., War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 3.

9 See, for instance, Margalit, Gilad, Guilt, Suffering, and Memory: Germany Remembers Its Dead of World War II (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010); Hahn, Eva and Hahn, Hans Henning, Die Vertreibung im deutschen Erinnern: Legenden, Mythos, Geschichte (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2010) and, most notably, Moeller, War Stories.

10 Among the few exceptions, Salzborn, Grenzenlose Heimat, 40–1.

11 Ahonen, Pertti, ʻOn Forced Migrations: Transnational Realities and National Narratives in Post-1945 (West) Germanyʼ, German History, 32, 4 (2014), 602.

12 This section of the article is partly based on research results presented in Sagi Schaefer (Hanani), ‘“Guilty” and “Less Guilty”, “Germans” and “Less Germans”: The Integration of the Germans from the East in the West German Discussion and their Impact on it’, M.A. thesis, Tel Aviv University, 2003. In Hebrew.

13 Neumann, Gerald, Die Medien und die Flüchtlingsfrage in Bayern von 1945 bis 1953 (Munich: iudicium, 1994), 14.

14 E. Hahn and H.H. Hahn, Vertreibung im deutschen Erinnern, 102, 122–3. On the post-war removal of the German minorities from territories in Central and Eastern Europe as part of a larger Soviet and British project of creating ethnically homogeneous nation-states in this area, see Frank, Matthew, Expelling the Germans: British Opinion and Post-1945 Population Transfer in Context (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 44–5.

15 Ibid., 47–52; Brandes, Detlef, Der Weg zur Vertreibung 1938–1945. Pläne und Entscheidungen zum ‘Transfer’ der Deutschen aus der Tschechoslowakei und aus Polen (Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2005 [2001]), esp. 2830; Martin Brown, David, Dealing with Democrats: The British Foreign Office and the Czechoslovak Émigrés in Great Britain, 1939 to 1945 (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag, 2006), 256–7, 278–81.

16 Frank, Matthew, ʻReconstructing the Nation-State: Population Transfer in Central and Eastern Europe, 1944–8ʼ, in Reinisch, Jessica and White, Elizabeth, eds., The Disentanglement of Populations: Migration, Expulsion and Displacement in Postwar Europe, 1944–9 (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 34.

17 Churchill, Winston, ʻSoviet-Polish Frontier. A Working Agreement Necessaryʼ, Vital Speeches of the Day, 11, 6 (1945), 165. On the Allies’ agreement during and after the war regarding the need to remove the German population from Central and Eastern Europe, see Naimark, Norman M., Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002), 108–11.

18 ʻPotsdam Declaration. Text of Big Three Communiquéʼ, Vital Speeches of the Day, 11, 21 (1945), 672.

19 Beer, ‘Flüchtlinge – Ausgewiesene’, 152–3.

20 Ibid., 156.

21 Military Government of Germany, Displaced Persons, Stateless Persons and Refugees. Monthly Report of Military Governor, no. 6 (US zone, 20 Jan. 1946), 3.

22 Beer, ‘Flüchtlinge – Ausgewiesene’, 156–7.

23 Ibid. 157–61. On the conflicts between the local German population and the refugees, see Levy, Daniel, ʻIntegrating Ethnic Germans in West Germany: The Early Postwar Periodʼ, in Rock, David and Wolff, Stefan, eds., Coming Home to Germany? The Integration of Ethnic Germans from Central and Eastern Europe in the Federal Republic (New York: Berghan Books, 2002), 1937.

24 Beer, ‘Flüchtlinge – Ausgewiesene’, 161.

25 Ibid., 166.

26 Schwartz, ‘“Vom Umsiedler zum Staatsbürger”’, 135–6, 149–62.

27 Böke, ‘Flüchtlinge und Vertriebene’, 153–5.

28 Ibid., 159–61. Because all non-locals were called Flüchtlinge, the term gradually came to reflect all the feelings of foreignness, menace, hostility and blame for the economic hardship that the local residents felt toward the newcomers, and therefore was often used in a derogatory sense. On the pejorative depiction of the ‘refugees’ in contemporary literature, see, for instance, Mönnich, Horst, Das Land ohne Träume. Reise durch die deutsche Wirklichkeit (Braunschweig: Georg Westermann Verlag, 1954), 5765.

29 Böke, ‘Flüchtlinge und Vertriebene’, 156, 161.

30 Between 1949 and 1961 a third of the migrants from East Germany were expellees. Helge Heidemeyer, ʻVertriebene als Sowjetflüchtlinge’, in Hoffmann, Krauss and Schwartz, eds., Vertriebene in Deutschland, 239.

31 On the integration in Western Germany of the new arrivals from the Soviet occupation zone, and subsequently from the GDR, see the excellent analysis in Ackermann, Volker, Der ʻechteʼ Flüchtling: Deutsche Vertriebene und Flüchtlinge aus der DDR 1945–1961 (Osnabrück: Universitätsverlag Rasch, 1995), esp. 96111.

32 Ibid., 70–1.

33 Lutz Mackensen, ʻDie deutsche Sprache in und nach der Vertreibungʼ, in Lemberg and Edding, eds., Vertriebenen in Westdeutschland, 264.

34 Ahonen, ‘German Expellee Organizations’, 123.

35 Lübbe, Hermann, ʻDer Streit um Worte. Sprache und Politikʼ, in Gadamer, Hans-Georg, ed., Das Problem der Sprache (Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1967), 360.

36 Ahonen, Pertti, After the Expulsion: West Germany and Eastern Europe 1945–1990 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 40.

37 Byrnes, James F., ʻA Self-Governing Germanyʼ, Vital Speeches of the Day, 12, 23 (1946), 709. On Byrnesʼ Stuttgart speech, see Ahonen, After the Expulsion, 26–7.

38 Moeller, War Stories, 35–6.

39 Demshuk, Andrew, ʻWhat was the “Right to the Heimat”? West German Expellees and the Many Meanings of Heimkehrʼ, Central European History, 45, 3, (2012), 523. For examples of how the West German press mentioned the ʻright to the Heimatʼ in reports about or quotes from the expellee organisations, see Marion Gräfin Dönhoff, ‘Heimat im Osten’, Die Zeit, 18 May 1950, 1; ‘Heimat zwischen Haff und Meer’, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 28 Feb. 1951, 5.

40 Ahonen, ‘German Expellee Organizations’, 123.

41 Ibid., 123–5.

42 Lotz, Christian, Die Deutung des Verlusts: Erinnerungspolitische Kontroversen im geteilten Deutschland um Flucht, Vertreibung und die Ostgebiete (1948–1972) (Köln: Böhlau Verlag, 2007), 2; Böke, ‘Flüchtlinge und Vertriebene’, 161.

43 Ibid., 155.

44 ʻGesetz über die Angelegenheiten der Vertriebenen und Flüchtlinge (Bundesvertriebenengesetz, BVFG)’, Bundesgesetzblatt, 1, 22 (22 May 1953), 203 (Begriffbestimmungen); Wolff, German Question, 76. More than the term Vertriebener, the term Heimatvertriebener stressed the loss of the homeland ‘in the East’ and thus pointed to the victim status of the expellees. The legal differentiation between those terms was of practical relevance within the frame of the 1953 West German Equalization of Burdens Law (Lastenausgleichsgesetz), that regulated, among others, the compensation of material damages inflicted upon ethnic Germans in the course of the expulsion. Because of their traumatic uprooting from the homeland, Heimatvertriebene were eligible to a ten percent premium (the so-called Entwurzelungszuschlag). See Rüfner, Wolfgang, ʻProbleme des Lastenausgleichs aus juristischer Sicht’, in Erker, Paul, ed., Rechnung für Hitlers Krieg. Aspekte und Probleme des Lastenausgleichs (Heidelberg: Verlag Regionalkultur, 2004), 25.

45 ʻBVFG’, Bundesgesetzblatt, 1, 22 (22 May 1953), 203 (Begriffbestimmungen); Wolff, German Question, 76.

46 Ackermann, ʻEchteʼ Flüchtling, 40.

47 Böke, ‘Flüchtlinge und Vertriebene’, 157.

48 Michael Schwartz, ‘Assimilation versus Incorporation: Expellee Integration Policies in East and West Germany after 1945’, in Borutta and Jansen, eds., Vertriebene and Pieds-Noirs, esp. 77.

49 Schaefer (Hanani), ‘“Guilty” and “Less Guilty”’.

50 Neumann, Medien und die Flüchtlingsfrage, 41. On the Allied press control in Germany, see Hurwitz, Harold, ʻDie Pressepolitik der Alliiertenʼ, in Pross, Harry, ed., Deutsche Presse seit 1945 (Bern: Scherz Verlag, 1965), 2755.

51 The Süddeutsche Zeitung, for instance, which began in the immediate post-war period as a Bavarian local newspaper with an impressive circulation of 400,000 copies, had its numbers down to 250,000 copies in 1949, (although by then it appeared no longer two or three times per week, but had become a daily). Neumann, Medien und die Flüchtlingsfrage, 247.

52 Ibid., 35, 38.

53 Ibid., 249.

54 Ibid., 38.

55 Werner Friedmann, ʻSie ernteten den Haßʼ, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 4 June 1946, 3.

56 Neumann, Medien und die Flüchtlingsfrage, 38, 247, 250.

57 Ibid. 56, 58–61.

58 For a good example of the resistance that the requirement to absorb the German newcomers from the East evoked, for instance, in a rural district of Bavaria, see Sallinger, Barbara, Die Integration der Heimatvertriebenen im Landkreis Günzburg nach 1945 (Munich: Verlag Ernst Vögel, 1992), 98108.

59 Neumann, Medien und die Flüchtlingsfrage, 45–7.

60 On the social and psychological obstacles faced by the expellees (and refugees) in West Germany, see Schulze, Rainer, ʻGrowing Discontent: Relations between Native and Refugee Populations in a Rural District in Western Germany after the Second World Warʼ, in Moeller, Robert G., ed., West Germany under Construction: Politics, Society, and Culture in the Adenauer Era (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997), 5372.

61 Douglas, R.M., Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012), 314. For detailed description and analysis of the unwelcoming attitude of the local Germans to the expellees, see ibid., 301–25; Beer, Mathias, Flucht und Vertreibung der Deutschen: Voraussetzungen, Verlauf, Folgen (Munich: Verlag C.H.Beck, 2011), 94120; Kossert, Andreas, Kalte Heimat: Die Geschichte der deutschen Vertriebenen nach 1945 (Munich: Siedler Verlag, 2008).

62 Neumann, Medien und die Flüchtlingsfrage, 56–61, 64–8. The Süddeutsche Zeitung reported, for instance, that local women who refused to house refugees in their homes were sentenced to living in a refugee camp for a month. ʻZu Flüchtlingslager verurteiltʼ, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 25 Feb. 1947, 2.

63 ʻHaben wir die Pflicht, unseren deutschen Brüdern in ihrem Unglück in jeder Weise zu helfenʼ. Richard Tüngel, ʻOhne Heimatʼ, Die Zeit, 5 Sep. 1946, 1.

64 The sense of foreignness is evident between the lines in many articles. See, for example, Jan Molitor (= Josef Müller-Marein), ‘Die Not der Menschen ohne Heim und Heimat’, Die Zeit, 2 Jan. 1947, 9.

65 Der Spiegel, 13 Oct. 1949, 8. When a school principal in a village in Lower Saxony – a German from the East whose Polish-sounding name the locals had difficulty pronouncing – adopted ‘defeatist’ stances vis-à-vis the occupying powers and fired a teacher who expressed nationalist views in class, the parents wrote to the mayor that they demand ‘only German teachers’ who act ‘in a German spirit’ (im deutschen Sinne). ‘Im deutschen Sinne’, Der Spiegel, 4 Aug. 1949, 10. In another article that year, Der Spiegel mentioned an objection by local residents to the participation of Germans from the East in the upcoming vote on a constitution for the Federal Republic of Germany. ‘Geistlicher Rat teuer’, Der Spiegel, 12 Mar. 1949, 10.

66 See, for example, ʻDie Zone der Heimatlosenʼ, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 19 Oct. 1945, 4.

67 Tüngel, ʻOhne Heimatʼ.

68 Towards the end of the decade, there were many cases of such discrepancies between headlines and articles. See, for example, ‘Flüchtlingsproblem hat bedrohliches Stadium erreicht’, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 11 Nov. 1948, 2; ‘Flüchtlinge fordern Sonderministerium’, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 15 Mar. 1949, 2; Robert Strobel, ‘Flüchtlingsministerium’, Die Zeit, 1 Sept. 1949, 2; Ernst Friedlaender, ʻEs gibt keine Flucht vor den Flüchtlingenʼ, Die Zeit, 22 Sept. 1949, 1.

69 ʻEine Dachorganization der Flüchtlingeʼ, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 17 Nov. 1949, 5.

70 ʻZusammenschluß aller Flüchtlingeʼ, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 2 Mar. 1953, 3.

71 Neumann, Medien und die Flüchtlingsfrage, 70.

72 Weger, Tobias, ‘Volkstumskampf’ ohne Ende? Sudetendeutsche Organisationen, 1945–1955 (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Verlag, 2008), 473–4.

73 See, for example, ‘Tag der Heimat’, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 8 Oct. 1949, 2; ‘Flüchtlinge feiern “Tag der Heimat”’, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 10 Oct. 1949, 4; ‘Vertriebene fordern Rückkehr’, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 22 May 1950, 3; ‘Eines Tages wieder deutsch’, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 16 Oct. 1950, 3; ‘Menschenrecht auf die Heimat’, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 4 Aug. 1952, 1.

74 Neumann, Medien und die Flüchtlingsfrage, 287.

75 Ibid., 273.

76 Passauer Neue Presse, 13 Jan. 1949, 1.

77 Friedlaender, Es gibt keine Flucht.

78 Ibid.

79 The ʻBig Threeʼ signatories of the Potsdam agreement were the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, the prime minister of the United Kingdom, Clement Attlee, and the president of the United States, Harry S Truman.

80 ʻDas Streiflichtʼ (column), Süddeutsche Zeitung, 20 Mar. 1950, 1.

81 Moeller, War Stories, 35.

82 C.W. Kühns, ʻVerbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeitʼ, Die Zeit, 8 Sept. 1949, 16.

83 At the Yalta Conference of February 1945, the president of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt, the prime minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill, and Stalin agreed that in a future peace settlement Poland would receive territories from Germany.

84 Marion Gräfin Dönhoff, ʻAufstand der Vertriebenen und Entrechtetenʼ, Die Zeit, 20 July 1950, 1.

85 Süddeutsche Zeitung, 24 Mar. 1950, 1.

86 Moeller, War Stories, 174.

87 Between 4 January 1940 and April 1945, the former student residence building served as a Gestapo prison. See www.bundesarchiv.de/zwangsarbeit/haftstaetten/index.php?action=2.2&id=2319 (last visited 23 Aug. 2016).

88 Der Spiegel, 11 Apr. 1951, 7.

89 ʻVertriebene. Damit sie weinen können’, Der Spiegel, 19 Jan. 1950, 9.

90 Moeller, War Stories, 78.

91 For references on the German victim discourse, see the literature listed in note 9.

92 Sonntagsblatt, 21 Sept. 1952. Quote from Jung, Nieh and Böke, Ausländer und Migranten im Spiegel der Presse, 77.

We would like to thank José Brunner (Tel Aviv) and Kobi Kabalek (Jerusalem) as well as the three anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments on an earlier version of this article. Iris Nachum's research leading to this article has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement Number 340124: ʻJudgingHistories: Experience, Judgement, and Representation of World War II in an Age of Globalizationʼ/Principal Investigator: Dan Diner.

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The Semantics of Political Integration: Public Debates about the Term ‘Expellees’ in Post-War Western Germany

  • IRIS NACHUM (a1) and SAGI SCHAEFER (a2)

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