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Psychometric evaluation of the Work Readiness Questionnaire in schizophrenia

  • Steven G. Potkin (a1), Dragana Bugarski-Kirola (a2), Chris J. Edgar (a3), Sherif Soliman (a2), Stephanie Le Scouiller (a4), Jelena Kunovac (a5), Eugenio Miguel Velasco (a6) and George M. Garibaldi (a2)...

Abstract

Objective/Introduction

Unemployment can negatively impact quality of life among patients with schizophrenia. Employment status depends on ability, opportunity, education, and cultural influences. A clinician-rated scale of work readiness, independent of current work status, can be a valuable assessment tool. A series of studies were conducted to create and validate a Work Readiness Questionnaire (WoRQ) for clinicians to assess patient ability to engage in socially useful activity, independent of work availability.

Methods

Content validity, test–retest and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity were evaluated in three separate studies.

Results

Content validity was supported. Cronbach’s α was 0.91, in the excellent range. Clinicians endorsed WoRQ concepts, including treatment adherence, physical appearance, social competence, and symptom control. The final readiness decision showed good test–retest reliability and moderate inter-rater reliability. Work readiness was associated with higher function and lower levels of negative symptoms. Low positive and high negative predictive values confirmed the concept validity.

Discussion

The WoRQ has suitable psychometric properties for use in a clinical trial for patients with a broad range of symptom severity. The scale may be applicable to assess therapeutic interventions. It is not intended to assess eligibility for supported work interventions.

Conclusions

The WoRQ is suitable for use in schizophrenia clinical trials to assess patient work functional potential.

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Copyright

The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Corresponding author

*Addresses for correspondence: Steven G. Potkin, University of California–Irvine, Orange, CA, USA. (Email: sgpotkin@uci.edu; sgpotkin@gmail.com) George M. Garibaldi, Global Head of Neuroscience Product Development – PDN, F. Hoffmann-la Roche, 4070-Basel, Switzerland (Email: george.garibaldi@roche.com).

Footnotes

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This research was supported by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. The authors would like to thank the following principle investigators who participated in the various validation steps described in this article: USA: Miranda Chakos, Alla Gourov, Barbara Hartsfield; Serbia: Nadja Maric; UK: Nicholas Beecroft; Brazil: Helio Elkis, Sandra Ruschel; Japan: Yoshio Hirayasu; Mainland China: Huafang Li; Taiwan: Tsuo-Hung Lan. The authors also acknowledge the prestudy raters in the centers led by the following individuals: Sarah Atkinson, Anders Berntsson, Ricardo Corral, Johnny Edrozo, John Geddes, Mark Hernandez, MaryAnn Knezevic, Alex Koplowitz, Nils Lindefors, Jean-PierreLindenmayer, Eva Lindstrom, Joseph McEvoy, Vishaal Mehra, Carlos Morra, Mark Novitsky, Bhatia Prakash, Scott Segal, Manuel Velasco, Peter Ventre, Nashimath Yadalam. The authors thank Mary Kujawa, Nick Marsh, Ruth Middleton, Kisook Yoo, and Sherif Soliman, all formerly of F. Hoffmann-La Roche, for their contributions to these studies, and Shichun Ling for editorial support.

Footnotes

References

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Keywords

Psychometric evaluation of the Work Readiness Questionnaire in schizophrenia

  • Steven G. Potkin (a1), Dragana Bugarski-Kirola (a2), Chris J. Edgar (a3), Sherif Soliman (a2), Stephanie Le Scouiller (a4), Jelena Kunovac (a5), Eugenio Miguel Velasco (a6) and George M. Garibaldi (a2)...

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