1.Morris, LS, Voon, V. Dimensionality of cognitions in behavioral addiction. Curr Behav Neurosci Rep. 2016;3(1):49–57.
2.Hollander, E, Rosen, J Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: a review. In: Maj M, Sartorius N, Okasha A, Zohar J, eds. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. 2nd ed. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.; 2002:203–224.
3.Fineberg, NA, Potenza, MN, Chamberlain, SR, et al. Probing compulsive and impulsive behaviors, from animal models to endophenotypes: a narrative review. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35(3):591–604.
4.Black, DW. Compulsive buying disorder: a review of the evidence. CNS Spectr 2014;12(2):124–132.
5.Fineberg, NA, Chamberlain, SR, Goudriaan, AE, et al. New developments in human neurocognition: clinical, genetic, and brain imaging correlates of impulsivity and compulsivity. CNS Spectr 2014;19(1):69–89.
6.Krueger, RF, DeYoung, CG. The RDoC initiative and the structure of psychopathology. Psychophysiology. 2016;53(3):351–354.
7.Kotov, R, Krueger, RF, Watson, D, et al. The hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP): a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. J Abnorm Psychol. 2017;126(4):454–477.
8.Robbins, TW, Gillan, CM, Smith, DG, de Wit, S, Ersche, KD. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012;16(1):81–91.
9.Krueger, RE, Markon, KE. Reinterpreting comorbidity: a model-based approach to understanding and classifying psychopathology. Ann Rev Clin Psychol. 2006;2(1):111–133.
10.Rodriguez-Seijas, C, Eaton, NR, Krueger, RF. How transdiagnostic factors of personality and psychopathology can inform clinical assessment and intervention. J Pers Assess. 2015;97(5):425–435.
11.Dalley, JW, Everitt, BJ, Robbins, TW
Impulsivity, compulsivity, and top-down cognitive control. Neuron. 2011;69(4):680–694.
12.Moeller, FG, Barratt, ES, Dougherty, DM, Schmitz, JM, Swann, AC. Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(11):1783–1793.
13.Hollander, E. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders: an overview. Psychiatr Ann. 1993;23(7):355–358.
14.Hollander, E, Benzaquen, DS. The obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders. Int Rev Psychiatry. 1997;9(1):99–110.
15.Grant, JE, Kim, SW. Comorbidity of impulse control disorders in pathological gamblers. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2003;108(3):203–207.
16.Black, DW, Coryell, W, Crowe, R, Shaw, M, McCormick, B, Allen, J. The relationship of DSM-IV pathological gambling to compulsive buying and other possible spectrum disorders: results from the Iowa PG family study. Psychiatry Res. 2015;226(1):273–276.
17.Ruscio, AM, Stein, DJ, Chiu, WT, Kessler, RC. The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15(1):53–63.
18.Chamberlain, SR, Stochl, J, Redden, SA, Grant, JE. Latent traits of impulsivity and compulsivity: toward dimensional psychiatry. Psychol Med. 2017;48(5):1–12.
19.Gillan, CM, Kosinski, M, Whelan, R, Phelps, EA, Daw, ND. Characterizing a psychiatric symptom dimension related to deficits in goal-directed control. eLife. 2016;5:e11305.
20.Cyders, MA, Coskunpinar, A. Measurement of constructs using self-report and behavioral lab tasks: is there overlap in nomothetic span and construct representation for impulsivity? Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31(6):965–982.
21.Hedge, C, Powell, G, Sumner, P. The reliability paradox: why robust cognitive tasks do not produce reliable individual differences. Behav Res Methods. 2018;50(3):1166–1186.
22.Cyders, MA, Smith, GT, Spillane, NS, Fischer, S, Annus, AM, Peterson, C. Integration of impulsivity and positive mood to predict risky behavior: development and validation of a measure of positive urgency. Psychol Assess. 2007;19(1):107–118.
23.Whiteside, SP, Lynam, DR. The Five Factor Model and impulsivity: using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences. 2001;30(4):669–689.
24.Stanford, MS, Mathias, CW, Dougherty, DM, Lake, SL, Anderson, NE, Patton, JH. Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: an update and review. Personality and Individual Differences. 2009;47(5):385–395.
25.Tolin, DF, Abramowitz, JS, Brigidi, BD, Foa, EB. Intolerance of uncertainty in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Anxiety Disord. 2003;17(2):233–242.
26.Gentes, EL, Ruscio, AM. A meta-analysis of the relation of intolerance of uncertainty to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31(6):923–933.
27.Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. Psychometric validation of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire and the Interpretation of Intrusions Inventory. Part 2: factor analyses and testing of a brief version. Behav Res Ther. 2005;43(11):1527–1542.
28.Chamberlain, SR, Leppink, EW, Redden, SA, Grant, JE. Are obsessive–compulsive symptoms impulsive, compulsive or both? Compr Psychiatry. 2016;68(Suppl C):111–118.
29.Gillan, CM, Daw, ND. Taking psychiatry research online. Neuron 2016;91(1):19–23.
30.Reise, SP. The rediscovery of bifactor measurement models. Multivariate Behav Res. 2012;47(5):667–696.
31.Myers, SG, Fisher, PL, Wells, A. Belief domains of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire-44 (OBQ-44) and their specific relationship with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22(3):475–484.
32.Carleton, RN, Norton, MA, Asmundson, GJ. Fearing the unknown: a short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale. J Anxiety Disord. 2007;21(1):105–117.
33.Birrell, J, Meares, K, Wilkinson, A, Freeston, M. Toward a definition of intolerance of uncertainty: a review of factor analytical studies of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31(7):1198–1208.
34.Saunders, JB, Aasland, OG, Babor, TF, De La Fuente, JR, Grant, M. Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption-II. Addiction. 1993;88(6):791–804.
35.Holtgraves, T. Evaluating the problem gambling severity index. J Gambl Stud. 2009;25(1):105–120.
36.Faber, RJ, O’Guinn, TC. A clinical screener for compulsive buying. Journal of Consumer Research. 1992
37.Foa, EB, Huppert, JD, Leiberg, S, et al. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: development and validation of a short version. Psychol Assess. 2002;14(4):485–496.
38.Gormally, J, Black, S, Daston, S, Rardin, D. The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addict Behav. 1982;7(1):47–55.
39.Caplan, SE. Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being: development of a theory-based cognitive-behavioral measurement instrument. Computers in Human Behavior. 2002;18(5):553–575.
40.Caplan, SE. Theory and measurement of generalized problematic internet use: a two-step approach. Computers in Human Behavior. 2010;26(5):1089–1097.
41.Reinert, DF, Allen, JP. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: an update of research findings. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31(2):185–199.
42.Reinert, DF, Allen, JP. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): a review of recent research. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26(2):272–279.
43.Müller, A, Mitchell, JE, de Zwaan, M. Compulsive buying. Am J Addict. 2015;24(2):132–137.
44.Duarte, C, Pinto-Gouveia, J, Ferreira, C. Expanding binge eating assessment: validity and screening value of the Binge Eating Scale in women from the general population. Eat Behav. 2015;18:41–47.
45.Laconi, S, Rodgers, RF, Chabrol, H. The measurement of Internet addiction: a critical review of existing scales and their psychometric properties. Computers in Human Behavior. 2014;41(Suppl C):190–202.
46.Abramowitz, JS, Deacon, BJ. Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory—Revised: replication and extension with a clinical sample. J Anxiety Disord. 2006;20(8):1016–1035.
47.Yim, O, Ramdeen, KT. Hierarchical cluster analysis: comparison of three linkage measures and application to psychological data. The Quantitative Methods for Psychology. 2015;11(1):8–21.
48.Muthén, LK, Muthén, BO.
Mplus user’s guide
. 7th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén; 1998–2012.
49.Enders, CK. Applied Missing Data Analysis
. New York: The Guilford Press; 2010.
Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming
. New York: Routledge; 2012.
51.Kline, RB. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. 4th ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2016.
52.Vandenberg, RJ, Lance, CE. A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods. 2000;3(1):4–70.
53.Silvia, ESM, MacCallum, RC. Some factors affecting the success of specification searches in covariance structure modeling. Multivariate Behav Res. 1988;23(3):297–326.
54.Devlieger, I, Rosseel, Y. Factor score path analysis. Methodology. 2017;13(Suppl 1):31–38.
55.Devlieger, I, Mayer, A, Rosseel, Y. Hypothesis testing using factor score regression: a comparison of four methods. Educ Psychol Meas. 2016;76(5):741–770.
56.Bagozzi, RP, Yi, Y. Specification, evaluation, and interpretation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 2012;40(1):8–34.
57.Marsh, HW, Hau, KT, Wen, Z. In search of golden rules: comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling. 2004;11(3):320–341.
58.Bentler, PM, Bonett, DG. Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychol Bull. 1980;88(1):588–606.
59.Browne, MW, Cudeck, R. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: Bollen KA, Long JS, eds. Testing Structural Equation Models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1993:136–162.
Evaluating Cutoff Criteria of Model Fit Indices for Latent Variable Models with Binary and Continuous Outcomes [dissertation]. Los Angeles: University of California Los Angeles; 2002.
61.Hoaglin, DC, Iglewicz, B. Fine-tuning some resistant rules for outlier labeling. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 1987;82(400):1147–1149.
62.Small, NJH. Marginal skewness and kurtosis in testing multivariate normality. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C (Applied Statistics). 1980;29(1):85–87.
63.Looney, SW. How to use tests for univariate normality to assess multivariate normality. The American Statistician. 1995;49(1):64–70.
64.DeCarlo, LT. On the meaning and use of kurtosis. Psychol Methods. 1997;2(3):292–307.
65.Kuss, DJ, Griffiths, MD, Karila, L, Billieux, J. Internet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20(25):4026–4052.
66.Byrne, BM, Shavelson, RJ, Muthén, B. Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: the issue of partial measurement invariance. Psychol Bull. 1989;105(3):456–466.
67.Whiteside, SP, Lynam, DR, Miller, JD, Reynolds, SK. Validation of the UPPS impulsive behaviour scale: a four-factor model of impulsivity. European Journal of Personality. 2005;19(7):559–574.
68.Rodriguez, A, Reise, SP, Haviland, MG. Applying bifactor statistical indices in the evaluation of psychological measures. J Pers Assess
69.Reise, SP, Waller, NG. Item response theory and clinical measurement. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2009;5:27–48.
70.Rodriguez, A, Reise, SP, Haviland, MG. Evaluating bifactor models: calculating and interpreting statistical indices. Psychol Methods. 2016;21(2):137–150.
71.Hancock, GR, Mueller, RO. Rethinking construct reliability within latent variable systems. In: Cudeck R, du Toit S, Sorbom D, eds. Structural Equation Modeling: Present and Future—A Festchrift in Honor of Karl Joreskog. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International; 2001:195–216.
72.Edelen, MO, Reeve, BB. Applying item response theory (IRT) modeling to questionnaire development, evaluation, and refinement. Qual Life Res. 2007;16(Suppl 1):5–18.
73.Reise, SP, Scheines, R, Widaman, KF, Haviland, MG. Multidimensionality and structural coefficient bias in structural equation modeling a bifactor perspective. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 2013;73(1):5–26.
74.Steinmetz, H. Analyzing observed composite differences across groups is partial measurement invariance enough? Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. 2013;9(1):1–12.
75.Grice, JW. Computing and evaluating factor scores. Psychol Methods. 2001;6(4):430–450.
76.DiStefano, C, Zhu, M, Mindrila, D. Understanding and using factor scores: considerations for the applied researcher. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation. 2009;14(20):1–11.
77.Hollander, E, Rosen, J. Impulsivity. J Psychopharmacol. 2000;14(2 Suppl 1):S39–S44.
78.Berlin, GS, Hollander, E. Compulsivity, impulsivity, and the DSM-5 process. CNS Spectr. 2014;19(1):62–68.
79.Kircanski, K, White, LK, Tseng, WL, et al. A latent variable approach to differentiating neural mechanisms of irritability and anxiety in youth. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018;75(6):631–639.
80.Coskunpinar, A, Dir, AL, Cyders, MA. Multidimensionality in impulsivity and alcohol use: a meta-analysis using the UPPS model of impulsivity. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37(9):1441–1450.
81.Norbury, A, Husain, M. Sensation-seeking: dopaminergic modulation and risk for psychopathology. Behav Brain Res. 2015;288(Suppl C):79–93.
Hittner, JB, Swickert, R. Sensation seeking and alcohol use: a meta-analytic review. Addict Behav. 2006;31(8):1383–1401.
83.Mahoney, AEJ, McEvoy, PM. A transdiagnostic examination of intolerance of uncertainty across anxiety and depressive disorders. Cogn Behav Ther. 2012;41(3):212–222.
84.Carleton, RN, Mulvogue, MK, Thibodeau, MA, McCabe, RE, Antony, MM, Asmundson GJG. Increasingly certain about uncertainty: intolerance of uncertainty across anxiety and depression. J Anxiety Disord. 2012;26(3):468–479.
85.Eaton, NR, Rodriguez-Seijas, C, Carragher, N, Krueger, RF. Transdiagnostic factors of psychopathology and substance use disorders: a review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015;50(2):171–182.
86.Fontenelle, LF, Oostermeijer, S, Harrison, BJ, Pantelis, C, Yücel, M. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorders and drug addiction. Drugs. 2011;71(7):827–840.
87.Boswell, JF, Thompson-Hollands, J, Farchione, TJ, Barlow, DH. Intolerance of uncertainty: a common factor in the treatment of emotional disorders. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69(6):630–645.
88.Einstein, DA. Extension of the transdiagnostic model to focus on intolerance of uncertainty: a review of the literature and implications for treatment. Clin Psychol (New York). 2014;21(3):280–300.
89.Stahl, C, Voss, A, Schmitz, F,. Behavioral components of impulsivity. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2014;143(2):850–886.
90.Grant, JE, Kim, SW. Brain circuitry of compulsivity and impulsivity. CNS Spectr. 2013;19(1):21–27.
91.Bonifay, W, Lane, SP, Reise, SP. Three concerns with applying a bifactor model as a structure of psychopathology. Clinical Psychological Science. 2017;5(1):184–186.
92.Skrondal, A, Laake, P. Regression among factor scores. Psychometrika. 2001;66(4):563–575.
93.Marsh, HW, Lüdtke, O, Nagengast, B, AJS, Morin, Von Davier, M. Why item parcels are (almost) never appropriate: Two wrongs do not make a right—Camouflaging misspecification with item parcels in CFA models. Psychol Methods. 2013;18(3):257–284.
94.Bandalos, DL. The effects of item parceling on goodness-of-fit and parameter estimate bias in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal. 2002;9(1):78–102.