Skip to main content Accessibility help

Neuronal underpinnings of cognitive impairment and - improvement in mood disorders

  • Kamilla W. Miskowiak (a1) and Cecilia S. Petersen (a1)


Neuropsychiatric illnesses including mood disorders are accompanied by cognitive impairment, which impairs work capacity and quality of life. However, there is a lack of treatment options that would lead to solid and lasting improvement of cognition. This is partially due to the absence of valid and reliable neurocircuitry-based biomarkers for pro-cognitive effects. This systematic review therefore examined the most consistent neural underpinnings of cognitive impairment and cognitive improvement in unipolar and bipolar disorders. We identified 100 studies of the neuronal underpinnings of working memory and executive skills, learning and memory, attention, and implicit learning and 9 studies of the neuronal basis for cognitive improvements. Impairments across several cognitive domains were consistently accompanied by abnormal activity in dorsal prefrontal (PFC) cognitive control regions—with the direction of this activity depending on patients’ performance levels—and failure to suppress default mode network (DMN) activity. Candidate cognition treatments seemed to enhance task-related dorsal PFC and temporo-parietal activity when performance increases were observed, and to reduce their activity when performance levels were unchanged. These treatments also attenuated DMN hyper-activity. In contrast, nonspecific cognitive improvement following symptom reduction was typically accompanied by decreased limbic reactivity and reversal of pre-treatment fronto-parietal hyper-activity. Together, the findings highlight some common neural correlates of cognitive impairments and cognitive improvements. Based on this evidence, studies are warranted to examine the reliability and predictive validity of target engagement in the identified neurocircuitries as a biomarker model of pro-cognitive effects.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Neuronal underpinnings of cognitive impairment and - improvement in mood disorders
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Neuronal underpinnings of cognitive impairment and - improvement in mood disorders
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Neuronal underpinnings of cognitive impairment and - improvement in mood disorders
      Available formats


Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Professor Kamilla W. Miskowiak, Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. (Email:


Hide All

The Lundbeck Foundation and the Weimann Foundation are acknowledged for their contribution to KWM’s salary from 2012–2020.



Hide All
1. Whiteford, HA, Degenhardt, L, Rehm, J, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2013;382(9904):15751586.
2. Bora, E, Harrison, BJ, Yucel, M, Pantelis, C. Cognitive impairment in euthymic major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2013;43(10):20172026.
3. Bourne, C, Aydemir, O, Balanza-Martinez, V, et al. Neuropsychological testing of cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar disorder: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013;128(3):149162.
4. Bonnin, CM, Martinez-Aran, A, Torrent, C, et al. Clinical and neurocognitive predictors of functional outcome in bipolar euthymic patients: a long-term, follow-up study. J Affect Disord. 2010;121(1–2):156160.
5. Torrent, C, Martinez-Aran, A, del Mar Bonnin, C, et al. Long-term outcome of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012;73(7):e899e905.
6. Tse, S, Chan, S, Ng, KL, Yatham, LN. Meta-analysis of predictors of favorable employment outcomes among individuals with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2014;16(3):217229.
7. Olesen, J, Gustavsson, A, Svensson, M, Wittchen, HU, Jonsson, B. The economic cost of brain disorders in Europe. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19(1):155162.
8. Wyatt, RJ, Henter, I. An economic evaluation of manic-depressive illness—1991. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1995;30(5):213219.
9. Miskowiak, KW, Carvalho, AF, Vieta, E, Kessing, LV. Cognitive enhancement treatments for bipolar disorder: a systematic review and methodological recommendations. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;26(10):15411561.
10. Miskowiak, KW, Ott, CV, Petersen, JZ, Kessing, LV. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of candidate treatments for cognitive impairment in depression and methodological challenges in the field. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;26(12):18451867.
11. Miskowiak, KW, Burdick, KE, Martinez-Aran, A, et al. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force. Bipolar Disord. 2017;19(8):614626.
12. Carlson, PJ, Singh, JB, Jr, Zarate CA, Drevets, WC, Manji, HK. Neural circuitry and neuroplasticity in mood disorders: insights for novel therapeutic targets. NeuroRx. 2006;3(1):2241.
13. Dietsche, B, Backes, H, Stratmann, M, Konrad, C, Kircher, T, Krug, A. Altered neural function during episodic memory encoding and retrieval in major depression. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014;35(9):42934302.
14. Fernandez-Corcuera, P, Salvador, R, Monte, GC, et al. Bipolar depressed patients show both failure to activate and failure to de-activate during performance of a working memory task. J Affect Disord. 2013;148(2–3):170178.
15. Frangou, S, Kington, J, Raymont, V, Shergill, SS. Examining ventral and dorsal prefrontal function in bipolar disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23(4):300308.
16. Hamilton, LS, Altshuler, LL, Townsend, J, et al. Alterations in functional activation in euthymic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia during a working memory task. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(12):39583969.
17. Minzenberg, MJ, Laird, AR, Thelen, S, Carter, CS, Glahn, DC. Meta-analysis of 41 functional neuroimaging studies of executive function in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(8):811822.
18. Monks, PJ, Thompson, JM, Bullmore, ET, et al. A functional MRI study of working memory task in euthymic bipolar disorder: evidence for task-specific dysfunction. Bipolar Disord. 2004;6(6):550564.
19. Ragland, JD, Laird, AR, Ranganath, C, Blumenfeld, RS, Gonzales, SM, Glahn, DC. Prefrontal activation deficits during episodic memory in schizophrenia. Amer J Psychiatry. 2009;166(8):863874.
20. Townsend, J, Bookheimer, SY, Foland-Ross, LC, Sugar, CA, Altshuler, LL. fMRI abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a working memory task in manic, euthymic and depressed bipolar subjects. Psychiatry Res. 2010;182(1):2229.
21. Sheline, YI, Barch, DM, Price, JL, et al. The default mode network and self-referential processes in depression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(6):19421947.
22. Miskowiak, KW, Macoveanu, J, Vinberg, M, et al. Effects of erythropoietin on memory-relevant neurocircuitry activity and recall in mood disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016;134(3):249259.
23. Miskowiak, KW, Vinberg, M, Glerup, L, et al. Neural correlates of improved executive function following erythropoietin treatment in mood disorders. Psychol Med. 2016;46(8):16791691.
24. Meusel, LA, Hall, GB, Fougere, P, McKinnon, MC, MacQueen, GM. Neural correlates of cognitive remediation in patients with mood disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2013;214(2):142152.
25. Smith, J, Browning, M, Conen, S, et al. Vortioxetine reduces BOLD signal during performance of the N-back working memory task: a randomised neuroimaging trial in remitted depressed patients and healthy controls. Mol Psychiatry. 2018;23(5):11271133.
26. Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e1000097.
27. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
28. World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Vol. 1. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.
29. Adler, CM, Holland, SK, Schmithorst, V, Tuchfarber, MJ, Strakowski, SM. Changes in neuronal activation in patients with bipolar disorder during performance of a working memory task. Bipolar Disord. 2004;6(6):540549.
30. Ajilore, O, Vizueta, N, Walshaw, P, Zhan, L, Leow, A, Altshuler, LL. Connectome signatures of neurocognitive abnormalities in euthymic bipolar I disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2015;68:3744.
31. Allin, MPG, Marshall, N, Schulze, K, et al. A functional MRI study of verbal fluency in adults with bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives. Psychol Med. 2010;40(12):20252035.
32. Alonso-Lana, S, Goikolea, JM, Bonnin, CM, et al. Structural and functional brain correlates of cognitive impairment in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. PloS One. 2016;11(7):e0158867.
33. Alonso-Lana, S, Valenti, M, Romaguera, A, et al. Brain functional changes in first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder: evidence for default mode network dysfunction. Psychol Med. 2016;46(12):25132521.
34. Barch, DM, Sheline, YI, Csernansky, JG, Snyder, AZ. Working memory and prefrontal cortex dysfunction: specificity to schizophrenia compared with major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53(5):376384.
35. Bartova, L, Meyer, BM, Diers, K, et al. Reduced default mode network suppression during a working memory task in remitted major depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2015;64:918.
36. Blumberg, HP, Leung, HC, Skudlarski, P, et al. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of bipolar disorder: state- and trait-related dysfunction in ventral prefrontal cortices. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(6):601609.
37. Brandt, CL, Eichele, T, Melle, I, et al. Working memory networks and activation patterns in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: comparison with healthy controls. Br J Psychiatry. 2014;204(4):290298.
38. Brooks, JO 3rd, Vizueta, N, Penfold, C, Townsend, JD, Bookheimer, SY, Altshuler, LL. Prefrontal hypoactivation during working memory in bipolar II depression. Psychol Med. 2015;45(8):17311740.
39. Costafreda, SG, Fu, CH, Picchioni, M, et al. Pattern of neural responses to verbal fluency shows diagnostic specificity for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:18.
40. Crane, NA, Jenkins, LM, Dion, C, et al. Comorbid anxiety increases cognitive control activation in major depressive disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2016;33(10):967977.
41. Curtis, VA, Thompson, JM, Seal, ML, et al. The nature of abnormal language processing in euthymic bipolar I disorder: evidence for a relationship between task demand and prefrontal function. Bipolar Disord. 2007;9(4):358369.
42. Dell’Osso, B, Cinnante, C, Di Giorgio, A, et al. Altered prefrontal cortex activity during working memory task in bipolar disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in euthymic bipolar I and II patients. J Affect Disord. 2015;184:116122.
43. Desseilles, M, Balteau, E, Sterpenich, V, et al. Abnormal neural filtering of irrelevant visual information in depression. J Neurosci. 2009;29(5):13951403.
44. Desseilles, M, Schwartz, S, Dang-Vu, TT, et al. Depression alters “top-down” visual attention: a dynamic causal modeling comparison between depressed and healthy subjects. Neuroimage. 2011;54(2):16621668.
45. Drapier, D, Surguladze, S, Marshall, N, et al. Genetic liability for bipolar disorder is characterized by excess frontal activation in response to a working memory task. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64(6):513520.
46. Fairhall, SL, Sharma, S, Magnusson, J, Murphy, B. Memory related dysregulation of hippocampal function in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychology. 2010;85(3):499503.
47. Finkelmeyer, A, Nilsson, J, He, J, et al. Altered hippocampal function in major depression despite intact structure and resting perfusion. Psychol Med. 2016;46(10):21572168.
48. Fitzgerald, PB, Srithiran, A, Benitez, J, et al. An fMRI study of prefrontal brain activation during multiple tasks in patients with major depressive disorder. Hum Brain Mapp. 2008;29(4):490501.
49. Fleck, DE, Eliassen, JC, Durling, M, et al. Functional MRI of sustained attention in bipolar mania. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17(3):325336.
50. Frangou, S. Brain structural and functional correlates of resilience to bipolar disorder. Front Hum Neurosci. 2011;5:184.
51. Frangou, S. The Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project. Epilepsia. 2005;46(Suppl 4):1925.
52. Garrett, A, Kelly, R, Gomez, R, Keller, J, Schatzberg, AF, Reiss, AL. Aberrant brain activation during a working memory task in psychotic major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168(2):173182.
53. Genzel, L, Dresler, M, Cornu, M, et al. Medial prefrontal-hippocampal connectivity and motor memory consolidation in depression and schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2015;77(2):177186.
54. Glahn, DC, Robinson, JL, Tordesillas-Gutierrez, D, et al. Fronto-temporal dysregulation in asymptomatic bipolar I patients: a paired associate functional MRI study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2010;31(7):10411051.
55. Gruber, O, Tost, H, Henseler, I, et al. Pathological amygdala activation during working memory performance: evidence for a pathophysiological trait marker in bipolar affective disorder. Hum Brain Mapp. 2010;31(1):115125.
56. Gruber, SA, Dahlgren, MK, Sagar, KA, et al. Decreased cingulate cortex activation during cognitive control processing in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2017;213:8695.
57. Gruber, SA, Rogowska, J, Yurgelun-Todd, DA. Decreased activation of the anterior cingulate in bipolar patients: an fMRI study. J Affect Disord. 2004;82(2):191201.
58. Hall, J, Whalley, HC, Marwick, K, et al. Hippocampal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychol Med. 2010;40(5):761770.
59. Hammar, A, Neto, E, Clemo, L, Hjetland, GJ, Hugdahl, K, Elliott, R. Striatal hypoactivation and cognitive slowing in patients with partially remitted and remitted major depression. Psych J. 2016;5(3):191205.
60. Harvey, PO, Fossati, P, Pochon, JB, et al. Cognitive control and brain resources in major depression: an fMRI study using the n-back task. Neuroimage. 2005;26(3):860869.
61. Hugdahl, K, Rund, BR, Lund, A, et al. Brain activation measured with fMRI during a mental arithmetic task in schizophrenia and major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(2):286293.
62. Jamadar, S, O’Neil, KM, Pearlson, GD, et al. Impairment in semantic retrieval is associated with symptoms in schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(6):555564.
63. Jogia, J, Dima, D, Kumari, V, Frangou, S. Frontopolar cortical inefficiency may underpin reward and working memory dysfunction in bipolar disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012;13(8):605615.
64. Joshi, SH, Vizueta, N, Foland-Ross, L, et al. Relationships between altered functional magnetic resonance imaging activation and cortical thickness in patients with euthymic bipolar I disorder. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2016;1(6):507517.
65. Kassel, MT, Rao, JA, Walker, SJ, et al. Decreased fronto-limbic activation and disrupted semantic-cued list learning in major depressive disorder. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2016;22(4):412425.
66. Kelley, R, Garrett, A, Cohen, J, et al. Altered brain function underlying verbal memory encoding and retrieval in psychotic major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2013;211(2):119126.
67. Kikuchi, T, Miller, JM, Schneck, N, et al. Neural responses to incongruency in a blocked-trial Stroop fMRI task in major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2012;143(1–3):241247.
68. Korgaonkar, MS, Grieve, SM, Etkin, A, Koslow, SH, Williams, LM. Using standardized fMRI protocols to identify patterns of prefrontal circuit dysregulation that are common and specific to cognitive and emotional tasks in major depressive disorder: first wave results from the iSPOT-D study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38(5):863871.
69. Kronhaus, DM, Lawrence, NS, Williams, AM, et al. Stroop performance in bipolar disorder: further evidence for abnormalities in the ventral prefrontal cortex. Bipolar Disord. 2006;8(1):2839.
70. Lagopoulos, J, Ivanovski, B, Malhi, GS. An event-related functional MRI study of working memory in euthymic bipolar disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007;32(3):174184.
71. Le, TM, Borghi, JA, Kujawa, AJ, Klein, DN, Leung, HC. Alterations in visual cortical activation and connectivity with prefrontal cortex during working memory updating in major depressive disorder. Neuroimage Clin. 2017;14:4353.
72. Marchand, WR, Lee, JN, Thatcher, GW, et al. A functional MRI study of a paced motor activation task to evaluate frontal-subcortical circuit function in bipolar depression. Psychiatry Res. 2007;155(3):221230.
73. Matsuo, K, Glahn, DC, Peluso, MA, et al. Prefrontal hyperactivation during working memory task in untreated individuals with major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12(2):158166.
74. McKenna, BS, Sutherland, AN, Legenkaya, AP, Eyler, LT. Abnormalities of brain response during encoding into verbal working memory among euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders. 2014;16(3):289299.
75. McKenna, BS, Theilmann, RJ, Sutherland, AN, Eyler, LT. Fusing functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging measures of brain function and structure to predict working memory and processing speed performance among inter-episode bipolar patients. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2015;21(5):330341.
76. Milne, AM, MacQueen, GM, Hall, GB. Abnormal hippocampal activation in patients with extensive history of major depression: an fMRI study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2012;37(1):2836.
77. Naismith, SL, Lagopoulos, J, Ward, PB, Davey, CG, Little, C, Hickie, IB. Fronto-striatal correlates of impaired implicit sequence learning in major depression: an fMRI study. J Affect Disord. 2010;125(1–3):256261.
78. Norbury, R, Godlewska, B, Cowen, PJ. When less is more: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of verbal working memory in remitted depressed patients. Psychol Med. 2014;44(6):11971203.
79. Oertel-Knochel, V, Reinke, B, Feddern, R, et al. Verbal episodic memory deficits in remitted bipolar patients: a combined behavioural and fMRI study. J Affect Disord. 2013;150(2):430440.
80. Oertel-Knochel, V, Reinke, B, Feddern, R, et al. Episodic memory impairments in bipolar disorder are associated with functional and structural brain changes. Bipolar Disord. 2014;16(8):830845.
81. Palaniyappan, L, Liddle, PF. Diagnostic discontinuity in psychosis: a combined study of cortical gyrification and functional connectivity. Schizophr Bull. 2014;40(3):675684.
82. Penfold, C, Vizueta, N, Townsend, JD, Bookheimer, SY, Altshuler, LL. Frontal lobe hypoactivation in medication-free adults with bipolar II depression during response inhibition. Psychiatry Res. 2015;231(3):202209.
83. Pompei, F, Dima, D, Rubia, K, Kumari, V, Frangou, S. Dissociable functional connectivity changes during the Stroop task relating to risk, resilience and disease expression in bipolar disorder. Neuroimage. 2011;57(2):576582.
84. Pompei, F, Jogia, J, Tatarelli, R, et al. Familial and disease specific abnormalities in the neural correlates of the Stroop task in bipolar disorder. Neuroimage. 2011;56(3):16771684.
85. Rao, JA, Kassel, MT, Weldon, AL, et al. The double burden of age and major depressive disorder on the cognitive control network. Psychol Aging. 2015;30(2):475485.
86. Remijnse, PL, van den Heuvel, OA, Nielen, MMA, et al. Cognitive inflexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression is associated with distinct neural correlates. PloS one. 2013;8(4):e59600.
87. Rive, MM, Koeter, MW, Veltman, DJ, Schene, AH, Ruhe, HG. Visuospatial planning in unmedicated major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder: distinct and common neural correlates. Psychol Med. 2016;46(11):23132328.
88. Robinson, JL, Bearden, CE, Monkul, ES, et al. Fronto-temporal dysregulation in remitted bipolar patients: an fMRI delayed-non-match-to-sample (DNMS) study. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11(4):351360.
89. Rodriguez-Cano, E, Sarro, S, Monte, GC, et al. Evidence for structural and functional abnormality in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder. Psychol Med. 2014;44(15):32633273.
90. Rose, EJ, Simonotto, E, Ebmeier, KP. Limbic over-activity in depression during preserved performance on the n-back task. Neuroimage. 2006;29(1):203215.
91. Roth, RM, Koven, NS, Randolph, JJ, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of executive control in bipolar disorder. Neuroreport. 2006;17(11):10851089.
92. Ryan, KA, Dawson, EL, Kassel, MT, et al. Shared dimensions of performance and activation dysfunction in cognitive control in females with mood disorders. Brain. 2015;138(5):14241434.
93. Schlösser, RGM, Wagner, G, Koch, K, Dahnke, R, Reichenbach, JR, Sauer, H. Fronto-cingulate effective connectivity in major depression: a study with fMRI and dynamic causal modeling. Neuroimage. 2008;43(3):645655.
94. Schoning, S, Zwitserlood, P, Engelien, A, et al. Working-memory fMRI reveals cingulate hyperactivation in euthymic major depression. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(9):27462756.
95. Smucny, J, Lesh, TA, Newton, K, Niendam, T, Ragland, JD, Carter, CS. Levels of cognitive control: a functional magnetic resonance imaging-based test of an RDoC domain across bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018;43(3):598606.
96. Stegmayer, K, Usher, J, Trost, S, et al. Disturbed cortico-amygdalar functional connectivity as pathophysiological correlate of working memory deficits in bipolar affective disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2015;265(4):303311.
97. Strakowski, SM, Adler, CM, Cerullo, M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging brain activation in first-episode bipolar mania during a response inhibition task. Early Interv Psychiatry. 2008;2(4):225233.
98. Strakowski, SM, Adler, CM, Holland, SK, Mills, N, DelBello, MP. A preliminary fMRI study of sustained attention in euthymic, unmedicated bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29(9):17341740.
99. Strakowski, SM, Adler, CM, Holland, SK, Mills, NP, DelBello, MP, Eliassen, JC. Abnormal fMRI brain activation in euthymic bipolar disorder patients during a counting Stroop interference task. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(9):16971705.
100. Taylor, R, Theberge, J, Williamson, PC, Densmore, M, Neufeld, RW. ACC neuro-over-connectivity is associated with mathematically modeled additional encoding operations of schizophrenia Stroop-task performance. Front Psychology. 2016;7:1295.
101. Thermenos, HW, Goldstein, JM, Milanovic, SM, et al. An fMRI study of working memory in persons with bipolar disorder or at genetic risk for bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B(1):120131.
102. van Eijndhoven, P, van Wingen, G, Fernandez, G, et al. Neural basis of recollection in first-episode major depression. Hum Brain Mapp. 2013;34(2):283294.
103. van Eijndhoven, P, van Wingen, G, Fernandez, G, et al. Amygdala responsivity related to memory of emotionally neutral stimuli constitutes a trait factor for depression. Neuroimage. 2011;54(2):16771684.
104 van Tol, MJ, van der Wee, NJA, Demenescu, LR, et al. Functional MRI correlates of visuospatial planning in out‐patient depression and anxiety. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;124(4):273 –284.
105. Vasic, N, Walter, H, Sambataro, F, Wolf, RC. Aberrant functional connectivity of dorsolateral prefrontal and cingulate networks in patients with major depression during working memory processing. Psychol Med. 2009;39(6):977987.
106. Wagner, G, Koch, K, Schachtzabel, C, et al. Differential effects of serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants on brain activity during a cognitive control task and neurofunctional prediction of treatment outcome in patients with depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2010;35(4):247257.
107. Wagner, G, Sinsel, E, Sobanski, T, et al. Cortical inefficiency in patients with unipolar depression: an event-related fMRI study with the Stroop task. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59(10):958965.
108. Walter, H, Wolf, RC, Spitzer, M, Vasic, N. Increased left prefrontal activation in patients with unipolar depression: an event-related, parametric, performance-controlled fMRI study. J Affect Disord. 2007;101(1–3):175185.
109. Weathers, J, Brotman, MA, Deveney, CM, et al. A developmental study on the neural circuitry mediating response flexibility in bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2013;214(1):5665.
110. Welander-Vatn, A, Jensen, J, Otnaess, MK, et al. The neural correlates of cognitive control in bipolar I disorder: an fMRI study of medial frontal cortex activation during a go/no-go task. Neurosci Lett. 2013;549:5156.
111. Werner, NS, Meindl, T, Materne, J, et al. Functional MRI study of memory-related brain regions in patients with depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2009;119(1–3):124131.
112. Wessa, M, Houenou, J, Paillere-Martinot, ML, et al. Fronto-striatal overactivation in euthymic bipolar patients during an emotional go/nogo task. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(4):638646.
113. Wu, G, Wang, Y, Mwansisya, TE, et al. Effective connectivity of the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices relates to working memory impairment in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. Schizophr Res. 2014;158(1–3):8590.
114. Yoshimura, Y, Okamoto, Y, Onoda, K, et al. Psychosocial functioning is correlated with activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and left lateral prefrontal cortex during a verbal fluency task in euthymic bipolar disorder: a preliminary fMRI study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014;68(3):188196.
115. Altshuler, LL, Bookheimer, SY, Townsend, J, et al. Blunted activation in orbitofrontal cortex during mania: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58(10):763769.
116. Fleck, DE, Kotwal, R, Eliassen, JC, et al. Preliminary evidence for increased frontosubcortical activation on a motor impulsivity task in mixed episode bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2011;133(1–2):333339.
117. Kaladjian, A, Jeanningros, R, Azorin, JM, Nazarian, B, Roth, M, Mazzola-Pomietto, P. Reduced brain activation in euthymic bipolar patients during response inhibition: an event-related fMRI study. Psychiatry Res. 2009;173(1):4551.
118. Mazzola-Pomietto, P, Kaladjian, A, Azorin, JM, Anton, JL, Jeanningros, R. Bilateral decrease in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation during motor response inhibition in mania. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43(4):432441.
119. McIntosh, AM, Whalley, HC, McKirdy, J, et al. Prefrontal function and activation in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(3):378384.
120. Okada, G, Okamoto, Y, Morinobu, S, Yamawaki, S, Yokota, N. Attenuated left prefrontal activation during a verbal fluency task in patients with depression. Neuropsychobiology. 2003;47(1):2126.
121. Townsend, JD, Bookheimer, SY, Foland-Ross, LC, et al. Deficits in inferior frontal cortex activation in euthymic bipolar disorder patients during a response inhibition task. Bipolar Disord. 2012;14(4):442450.
122. Welander-Vatn, AS, Jensen, J, Lycke, C, et al. No altered dorsal anterior cingulate activation in bipolar II disorder patients during a go/no-go task: an fMRI study. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11(3):270279.
123. Haldane, M, Jogia, J, Cobb, A, Kozuch, E, Kumari, V, Frangou, S. Changes in brain activation during working memory and facial recognition tasks in patients with bipolar disorder with lamotrigine monotherapy. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18(1):4854.
124. Kaladjian, A, Jeanningros, R, Azorin, JM, et al. Remission from mania is associated with a decrease in amygdala activation during motor response inhibition. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11(5):530538.
125. Walsh, ND, Williams, SC, Brammer, MJ, et al. A longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of verbal working memory in depression after antidepressant therapy. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62(11):12361243.
126. Sankar, A, Adams, TM, Costafreda, SG, Marangell, LB, Fu, CH. Effects of antidepressant therapy on neural components of verbal working memory in depression. J Psychopharmacology. 2017;31(9):11761183.
127. Callicott, JH, Egan, MF, Mattay, VS, et al. Abnormal fMRI response of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cognitively intact siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(4):709719.
128. Ramsay, IS, MacDonald, AW 3rd. Brain correlates of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: activation likelihood analysis shows preliminary evidence of neural target engagement. Schizophr Bull. 2015;41(6):12761284.
129. Gualtieri, CT, Morgan, DW. The frequency of cognitive impairment in patients with anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder: an unaccounted source of variance in clinical trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(7):11221130.
130. Price, CJ, Friston, KJ. Scanning patients with tasks they can perform. Hum Brain Mapp. 1999;8(2–3):102108.
131. Zandbelt, BB, Gladwin, TE, Raemaekers, M, et al. Within-subject variation in BOLD-fMRI signal changes across repeated measurements: quantification and implications for sample size. Neuroimage. 2008;42(1):196206.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Miskowiak and Petersen supplementary material
Miskowiak and Petersen supplementary material 1

 PDF (80 KB)
80 KB

Neuronal underpinnings of cognitive impairment and - improvement in mood disorders

  • Kamilla W. Miskowiak (a1) and Cecilia S. Petersen (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.