Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Lessons Learned in Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

  • Frank M. Skidmore, Ramon L. Rodriguez, Hubert H. Fernandez, Wayne K. Goodman, Kelly D. Foote and Michael S. Okun...

Abstract

The introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a treatment for medication-refractory essential tremor in the late 1980s revealed, for the first time, that “chronically” implanted brain hardware had the potential to modulate neurologic function with surprisingly low morbidity. Over time, the therapeutic promise of DBS has become evident in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. In some experienced centers, complex tremor disorders, such as posttraumatic Holmes tremor and the tremor of multiple sclerosis, are being increasingly targeted. More recently, other indications, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome, major depression, and chronic pain, have been proposed. As the field has expanded, our knowledge about potential cognitive side effects of DBS has also expanded. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the impact of stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus internus, and ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus on symptoms in essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Also discussed are the emerging targets, what is known about the cognitive sequelae of DBS, and what has been learned about the complications and therapeutic failures.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Please direct all correspondence to: Frank M. Skidmore, MD, Director, VA Movement Disorders Program, Department of Neurology, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, 100S. Newell Drive, Room L3-100, P.O. Box 100236, Gainesville, FL 32610-0236.

References

Hide All
1.Speelman, JD, Bosch, DA. Resurgence of functional neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease: a historical perspective. Mov Disord. 1998;13:582588.
2.Meyers, R. Surgical experiments in the therapy of certain “extrapyramidal” diseases: a current evaluation. Acta Neurol. 1951;67:142.
3.Walter, BL, Vitek, JL. Surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3:719728.
4.Svennilson, E, Torvik, A, Lowe, R, Leksell, L. Treatment of parkinsonism by stereotatic thermolesions in the pallidal region. A clinical evaluation of 81 cases. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand. 1960;35:358377.
5.Broager, B, Fog, T. Thalamotomy for the relief of intention tremor in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 1962;38(suppl 3):153156.
6.Fox, JL, Kurtzke, JF. Trauma-induced intention tremor relieved by stereotaxic thalamotomy. Arch Neurol. 1966;15:247251.
7.Ohye, C, Hirai, T, Miyazaki, M, Shibazaki, T, Nakajima, H. Vim thalamotomy for the treatment of various kinds of tremor. Appl Neurophysiol. 1982;45:275280.
8.Tasker, RR, Siqueira, J, Hawrylyshyn, P, Organ, LW. What happened to VIM thalamotomy for Parkinson's disease? Appl Neurophysiol. 1983;46:6883.
9.Benabid, AL, Pollak, P, Louveau, A, Henry, S, de Rougemont, J. Combined (thalamotomy and stimulation) stereotactic surgery of the VIM thalamic nucleus for bilateral Parkinson disease. Appl Neurophysiol. 1987;50:344346.
10.Blond, S, Siegfried, J. Thalamic stimulation for the treatment of tremor and other movement disorders. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien). 1991;52:109111.
11.Gildenberg, PL. Spiegel and Wycis–the early years. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2001;77:1116.
12.Speigel, EA, Wycis, HT, Marks, M, Lee, AJ. Stereotaxic apparatus for operations on the human brain. Science. 1947; 06:349350.
13.DeLong, MR. Primate models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. Trends Neurosci. 1990;13:281285.
14.Albin, RL, Young, AB. Penney, JB. The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Trends Neurosci. 1989;12:366375.
15.Okun, MS, Vitek, JL. Lesion therapy for Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders: update and controversies. Mov Disord. 2004;19:375389.
16.Starr, PA, Turner, RS, Rau, G, et al.Microelectrode-guided implantation of deep brain stimulators into the globus pallidus internus for dystonia: techniques, electrode locations, and outcomes. Neurosurg Focus. 2004;17:E4.
17.Papavassiliou, E, Rau, G, Heath, S, et al.Thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: relation of lead location to outcome. Neurosurgery. 2004;54:11201129.
18.Starr, PA, Christine, CW, Theodosopoulos, PV, et al.Implantation of deep brain stimulators into the subthalamic nucleus: technical approach and magnetic resonance imaging-verified lead locations. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:370387.
19.Vitek, JL. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. A critical re-evaluation of STN versus GPi DBS. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2002;78:119131.
20.Volkman, J. Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;21:617.
21.McIntyre, CC, Grill, WM, Sherman, DL, Thakor, NV. Cellular effects of deep brain stimulation: model-based analysis of activation and inhibition. J Neurophysiol. 2004;91:14571469.
22.McIntyre, CC, Mori, S, Sherman, DL, Thakor, NV, Vitek, JL. Electric field and stimulating Influence generated by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;115:589595.
23.Grill, WM, Snyder, AN, Miocinovic, S. Deep brain stimulation creates an informational lesion of the stimulated nucleus. Neuroreport. 2004;15:11371140.
24.Strafella, A, Ashby, P, Munz, M, Dostrovsky, JO, Lozano, Am, Lang, AE. Inhibition of voluntary activity by thalamic stumulation in humans: relevance for the control of tremor. Mov Disord. 1997;12:727737.
25.Beurrier, C, bioulac, B, Audin, J, Hammond, C. High-frequency stimulation produces a transient blockade of voltage-gated currents in subthalamic neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2001;85:13511356.
26.Dostrovsky, JO, Levy, R, Wu, JP, Hutchison, WD, Tasker, RR, Lozano, AM. Microstimulation-induced inhibition of neuronal firing in human globus pallidus. J Neurophysiol. 2000;84:570574.
27.Hashimoto, T, Elder, CM, Okun, MS, Patrick, SK, Vitek, JL. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus changes the firing pattern of pallidal neurons. J Neurosci. 2003;23:19161923.
28.Lozano, AM, Dostrovsky, J, Chen, R, Ashby, P. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: disrupting the disruption. Lancet Neurol. 2002;1:225231.
29.Okun, MS, Foote, KD. Subthalamic nucleus vs globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation, the rematch: will pallidal deep brain stimulation make a triumphant return? Arch Neurol. 2005;62:533536.
30.Gibb, WR, Lees, AJ. The relevance of the Lewy body to the pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988;51:745752.
31.Okun, MS, Fernandez, HH, Pedraza, O, et al.Development and initial validation of a screening tool for Parkinson disease surgical candidates. Neurology. 2004;13;63:1611633.
32.Martinez-Martin, P, Gil-Nagel, A, Gracia, LM, Gomez, JB, Martinez-Sarries, J, Bermejo, F. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale characteristics and structure. The Cooperative Multicentric Group. Mov Disord. 1994;9:7683.
33.Richards, M, Marder, K, Cote, L, Mayeux, R. Interrater reliability of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor examination. Mov Disord. 1994;9:8991.
34.Fahn, S, Marsden, CD, Calne, DB, Goldstein, M, eds. Recent Developments in Parkinson's Disease, vol 2. Florham Park, NJ: Macmillan Health Care Information 1987.
35.Pillon, B. Neuropsychological assessment for management of patients with deep brain stimulation. Mov Disord. 2002;17(suppl 3):S116S122.
36.Saint-Cyr, JA, Trepanier, LL, Kumar, R, Lozano, AM, Lang, AE. Neuropsychological consequences of chronic bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2000;123:20912108.
37.Limousin, P, Krack, P, Pollak, P, et al.Electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in advanced Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 1998;339-11051111.
38.Burchiel, KJ, Anderson, VC, Favre, J, Hmmerstad, JP. Comparison of pallidal and subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease: results of a randomized, blinded pilot study. Neurosurgery. 1999;45:13751382.
39.Funiewiez, A, Ardouin, C, Krack, P, et al.Acute psychotropic effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2003;18:524530.
40.Schneider, F, Habel, U, Volkmann, J, et al.Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus enhances emotional processing in Parkinson's disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:296302.
41.Ardouin, C, Pillon, B, Peiffer, E, et al.Bilateral subthalamic or pallidal stimulation for Parkinson's disease affects neither memory or executive functions: a consecutive series of 62 patients. Ann Neurol. 1999;46:217223.
42.Pillon, B, Ardouin, C, Damier, P, et al.Neuropsychological changes between “off” and “on” STN or GPi stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2000;55:411418.
43.Kulisevsky, J, Berthier, ML, Gironell, A, Pascual-Sedano, B, Molet, J, Pares, P. Mania following deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Neurology.2002;59:14211424.
44.Krack, P, Kumar, R, Ardouin, C, et al.Mirthful laughter induced by subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Mov Disord. 2001;16:867875.
45.Doshi, PK, Chhaya, N, Bhatt, MH: Depression leading to attempted suicide after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2002;17:10841085.
46.Bejjani, BP, Damier, P, Arnulf, I, et al.Transient acute depression induced by high-frequency deep-brain stimulation. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:14761480.
47.Dujardin, K, Defebvre, L, Krystkowiak, P, Blond, S, Destee, A. Influence of chronic bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on cognitive function in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 2001;248:603611.
48.Hariz, MI, Johansson, F, Shamsgovara, P, Johansson, E, Hariz, GM, Fagerlund, M. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in a parkinsonian patient with preoperative deficits in speech and cognition: persistent improvement in mobility but increased dependency: a case study. Mov Disord. 2000;15:136139.
49.Trepanier, LL, Kumar, R, Lozano, AM, Lang, AE, Saint-Cyr, JA. Neuropsychological outcome of GPi pallidotomy and GPi or STN deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Brain Cogn. 2000;42:324347.
50.Thobois, S, Mertens, P, Guenot, M, et al.Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical evaluation of 18 patients. J Neurol. 2002;249:529534.
51.Tagliati, M, Pourfar, MH, Alterman, RL. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease patients over age 70 years. Neurology. 2005;65:179180.
52.Russmann, H, Ghika, J, Villemure, JG, et al.Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease patients over age 70 years. Neurology. 2004;63:19521954.
53.Vingerhoets, G, van der Linden, C, Lannoo, E, et al.Cognitive outcome after unilateral pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;66:297304.
54.Fraix, V, Pollak, P, Mora, E, et al.Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in tremor dominant parkinsonian patients with previous thalamic surgery. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:246248.
55.Germano, IM, Grades, JM, Weisz, DJ, Tse, W, Koller, WC, Olanow, CW. Unilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson disease: a double-blind 12-month evaluation study. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:3642.
56.Pahwa, R, Wilkinson, SB, Overfman, J, Lyons, DE. Bilateral subthalamic stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease:long-term follow up. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:7177.
57.Limousin, P, Pollak, P, Bennazzouz, A, et al.Effect of parkinsonian signs and symptoms of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Lancet. 1995;345:9195.
58.Krack, P, Pollak, P, Limosin, P, et al.Subthalamic nucleus or internal pallidal stimulation in young onset Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1998;121(pt 3):451457.
59.Moro, E, Scerrati, M, Romito, LM, Roselli, R, Tonali, P, Albanese, A. Chronic subthalamic nucleus stimulation reduces medication requirements in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1999;53:8590.
60.Bejani, BP, dormont, D, Pidous, B, et al.Bilateral subthalamic stimulation for Parkinson's disease by using three-dimensional stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological guidance. J Neurosurg. 2000;92:615625.
61.Fraix, V, Pollak, P, Van Bercom, N, et al.Effect of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in advanced Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2000;55:19211923.
62.The Deep-Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Study Group. Deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or the pars interna of the globus pallidus in Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:956963.
63.Volkmann, J, allert, N, Voges, J, Weiss, PH, Freund, HJ, Sturm, V. Safety and efficacy of pallidal or subthalamic nucleus stimulatio in advanced PD. Neurology. 2001;56:548551.
64.Lopiano, L, Rizzone, M, Bergamasco, B, et al.Deep brain stimuation of the subthalamic nucleus: clinical effectiveness and safety. Neurology. 2001;56:552554.
65.Romito, LM, Scerrati, M, Contarino, MF, Benivoglio, AR, Tonali, P, Albanse, A. Long-term follow up of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2002;96:666672.
66.Kleiner-Fisman, G, Fisman, DN, Sime, E, Saint-Cyr, JA, Lozano, AM, Lang, AE. Long-term follow up of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with advanced Parkinson disease. J Neurosrg. 2003;99:489495.
67.Krack, P, Batir, A, Van Blercom, N, et al.Five year follow-up of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in advanced Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:19251934.
68.Rodriguez-Oroz, MC, Obeso, JA, Lang, AE, et al.Bilateral deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a multicentre study with 4 years follow-up. Brain. 2005;128(pt 101:22402249.
69.Ostergaard, K, Aa Sunde N Evolution of Parkinson's disease during 4 years of bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. Mov Disord. 2006;21:624631.
70.Ostergaard, K, Sunde, N, Dupont, E. Effects of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with severe Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations. Mov Disord. 2002;17:693700.
71.Anderson, VC, Burchiel, KJ, Hogarth, P, Favre, J, Hammerstad, JP. Pallidal vs subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:554560.
72.Scotto di Luzio, AE, Ammannati, F, Martini, P, Sorbi, S, Mennonna, P. Which target for DBS in Parkinson's disease? Subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus internus. Neurol Sci. 2001;22:8788.
73.Volkmann, J, Allert, N, Voges, J, Weiss, PH, Freund, HJ, Sturm, V. Safety and efficacy of pallidal or subthalamic nucleus stimulation in advanced PD. Neurology. 2001;56:548551.
74.Volkman, J, Sturm, V, Weiss, P, et al.Bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the internal globus pallidus in advanced Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 1998;44:953956.
75.Kumar, R, Lang, AE, Rodrigue-Oroz, MC, et al.Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus pars interna in advanced Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 1998;55(suppl 6):S34S39.
76.Benabid, AL, Benazzouz, A, Limousin, P, et al.Dyskinesias and the subthalamic nucleus. Ann Neurol. 2000;47(4 suppl 1):S189S192.
77.Walter, BL, Vitek, JL. Surgical treatment for Parkinson's disease. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3:719728.
78.Bejjani, BP, Arnulf, I, Demeret, S, et al.Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: is sensitization reversible? Ann Neurol. 2000;47:655658.
79.Nutt, JG, Rufener, SI, Carte, JH, et al.Interactions between deep brain stimulation and levodopa in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2001;57:18351842.
80.Ghika, J, Villemure, JG, Fankhauser, H, Favre, J, Assal, G, Ghika-Schmid, F. Efficiency and safety of bilateral contemporaneous pallidal stimulation (deep brain stimulation) in levodopa-responsive patients with Parkinson's disease with severe motor fluctuations: a 2-year follow-up review. J Neurosurg. 1998;89:713718.
81.Loher, TJ, Burgunder, JM, Pohle, T, Weber, S, Sommerhalder, R, Krauss, JK. Long-term pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with advanced Parkinson disease: 1 year follow-up study. J Neurosurg. 2002;96:844853.
82.Defebvre, LU, Krystkowiak, P, Blatt, JL, et al.Influence of pallidal stimulation on levodopa on gait and preparatory postural adjustements in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2002;17:7683.
83.Krystkowiak, P, Blatt, JL, Boourriez, JL, et al.Chronic bilateral pallial stimulation and levodopa do not improve gait in the same way in Parkinson's diseae: a study using a video motoion analysis system. J Neurol. 2001;248:944949.
84.Pawha, R, Wilkinson, S, Smith, D, Lyons, K, Miyawai, E, Koller, WC. High-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidus for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1997;49:249253.
85.Minguez-Castellanos, A, Escamilla-Sevilla, F, Katati, MJ, et al.Different patterns of medication change after subthalamic or pallidal stimulation for Parkinson's disease: target related effect or selection bias? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 76:3439.
86.Volkman, J, Allert, N, Voges, J, Sturm, V, Schnitzler, A, Freund, HJ. Long-term results of bilateral pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2004;55:871875.
87.Koller, W, Pahwa, R, Busenbark, K, et al.High-frequency unilateral thalamic stimulation in the treatment of essential tremor and parkinsonian tremor. Ann Neurol. 1997;42:292299.
88.Blond, S, Caparros-Lefebvre, D, Parker, F, et al.Control of tremor and involuntary movement disorders by chronic stereotactic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. J Neurosurg. 1992;77:6268.
89.Benabid, AL, Pollak, P, Gao, D, et al.Chronic electrical stimulation of the ventralis inter-medius nucleus of the thalamus as a treatment of movement disorders. J Neurosurg. 1996;84:203214.
90.Hubble, JP, Busenbark, KL, Wilkinson, S, et al.Effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation based on tremor type and diagnosis. Mov Disord. 1997;12:337341.
91.Ondo, W, Jankovic, J, Schwartz, K, Almaguer, M, Simpson, RK. Unilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation of refractory essential tremor and Parkinson's disease tremor. Neurology. 1998;51:10631069.
92.Fraix, V, Pollak, P, Mora, E, Chabardes, S, Xie, J, Ardouin, C, Benabid, AL. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation in tremor dominant parkinsonian patients with previous thalamic surgery. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:246248.
93.Jahanshahi, M, Ardouin, CM, Brown, RG, et al.The impact of deep brain stimulation on executive function in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 2000;123(pt 6):11421154.
94.Gironell, A, Kulisevsky, J, Rami, L, Fortuny, N, Garcia-Sanchez, C, Pascual-Sedano, B. Effects of pallidotomy and bilateral subthalamic stimulation on cognitive function in Parkinson disease. A controlled comparative study. J Neurol. 2003;250:917923.
95.Alegret, M, Junque, C, Valldeoriola, F. et al.Effects of bilateral subthalamic stimulation on cognitive function in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:12231227.
96.Troster, AI, Fields, JA, Wilkinson, SB, et al.Unilateral pallidal stimulation for Parkinson's disease: neurobehavioral functioning before and 3 months after electrode implantation. Neurology. 1997;49:10781083.
97.Dujardin, K, Krystkowiak, P, Defebvre, L, Blond, S, Destee, A. A case of severe dysexecutive syndrome consecutive to chronic bilateral pallidal stimulation. Neuropsychologia. 2000;38:13051315.
98.Fields, JA, Troster, AI, Wilkinson, SB, Pahwa, R, Koller, WC. Cognitive outcome following staged bilateral pallidal stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1999;101:182188.
99.Loher, TJ, Gutbrod, K, Fravi, NL, Pohle, T, Burgunder, JM, Krauss, JK. Thalamic stimulation for tremor. Subtle changes in episodic memory are related to stimulation per se and not to a microthalamotomy effect. J Neurol. 2003;250:707713.
100.Troster, AI, Fields, JA, Pahwa, R, et al.Neuropsychological and quality of life outcome after thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. Neurology. 1999;53:17741780.
101.Fields, JA, Troster, AI, Woods, SP, et al.Neuropsychological and quality of life outcomes 12 months after unilateral thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:305311.
102.Woods, SP, Fields, JA, Lyons, KE, et al.Neuropsychological and quality of life changes following unilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a one-year follow-up. Acta Neurochir(Wien). 2001;143:12731277.
103.Fields, JA, Troster, AI, Woods, SR, et al.Neuropsychological and quality of life outcomes 12 months after unilateral thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:305311.
104.Kumar, R, Dagher, A, Hutchison, WD, Lang, AE, Lozano, AM. Globus pallidus deep brain stimulation for generalized dystonia: clinical and PET investigation. Neurology. 1999;53:871874.
105.Perozzo, P, Rizzone, M, Bergamasco, B, et al.Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease: comparison of pre- and postoperative neuropsychological evaluation. J Neurol Sci. 2001;192:915.
106.Troster, AI, Fields, JA, Pahwa, R, et al.Neuropsychological and quality of life outcome after thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. Neurology. 1999;53:17741780.
107.Lucas, JA, Rippeth, JD, Uitti, RJ, Shuster, EA, Wharen, RE. Neuropsychological functioning in a patient with essential tremor with and without bilateral VIM stimulation. Brain Cogn. 2000;42:253267.
108.Miyawaki, E, Troster, AI. Introduction to neurobehavioral issues in pallidotomy and pallidal stimulation. Brain Cogn. 2000;42:309312.
109.Woods, SP, Fields, JA, Lyons, KE, Pahwa, R, Troster, AI. Pulse width is associated with cognitive decline after thalamic stimulation for essential tremor. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2003;9:295300.
110.Jenkinson, N, Nandi, D, Miall, RC, Stein, JF, Aziz, TZ. Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improves akinesia in a Parkinsonian monkey. Neuroreport. 2004;15:26212624.
111.Plaha, R, Gill, SS. Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus for Parkinson's disease. Neuroreport. 2005;16:18831887.
112.Lyons, KE, Pahwa, R, Cornelia, CL, et al.Benefits and risks of pharmacological treatments for essential tremor. Drug Sal 2003;26:461481.
113.Schuurman, PR, Bosch, DA, Bossuyt, PM, et al.A comparison of continuous thalamic stimulation and thalamotomy for suppression of severe tremor. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:461468.
114.Tasker, RR. Deep brain stimulation is preferable to thalamotomy for tremor suppression. Surg Neurol. 1998;49:145153.
115.Pawha, R, Lyons, KE, Wilkinson, SB, et al.Comparison of thalamotomy to deep brain stimulation of the thalamus in essential tremor. Mov Disord. 2001;16:140143.
116.Vaillancourt, DE, Sturman, MM, Metman, LV, Bakay, RAE, Corcos, DM. Deep brain stimulation of the VIM thalamic nucleus modifies several features of essential tremor. Neurology. 2003;61:919925.
117.Ondo, W, Almaguer, M, Jankovic, J, Simpson, RK. Thalamic deep brain stimulation: comparison between unilateral and bilateral placement. Arch Neurol. 2001;342:461468.
118.Obwegeser, AA, Uitti, RJ, Turk, MR, Strongosky, AJ, Wharen, RE. Thalamic stimulation for the treatment of midline tremors in essential tremor patients. Neurology. 2000;54:23422344.
119.Sydow, O, Thobois, S, Alesch, F, Speelman, JD. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation in essential tremor: a six year follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:13871391.
120.Pahwa, R, Lyons, KL, Wilkinson, SB, et al. Bilateral thalamic stimulation for the treatment of essential tremor. Neurology. 1999;53:14471450.
121.Putzke, JD, Uitti, RJ, Obwegeser, AA, Wszolek, ZK, Wharen, RE. Bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation: midline tremor control. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:684690.
122.Yoon, MS, Munz, M, Sataloff, RT, Spiegel, JR, Heuer, RJ. Vocal tremor reduction with deep brain stimulation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1999;72:241244.
123.Moringlane, JR, Putzer, M, Barry, WJ. Bilateral high-frequency electrical impulses to the thalamus reduce voice tremor: acoustic and eiectroglottographic analysis. A case report. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;261:334336.
124.Taha, JM, Janszen, MA, Favre, J. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of head, voice, and bilateral limb tremor. J Neurosurg. 1999;91:6872.
125.Rehncrona, S, Johnels, B, Widner, H, Tornquist, AL, Hariz, M, Sydow, O. Long-term efficacy of thalamic deep brain stimulation for tremor: double blind assessments. Mov Disord. 2003;18:163170.
126.Lyons, KE, Koller, WC, Wilkinson, SB, Pahwa, R. Long term safety and efficacy of unilateral deep brain stimulation of the thalamus for parkinsonian tremor. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71:682684.
127.Lyons, KE, Pahway, R. Deep brain stimulation and essential tremor. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;21:25.
128.Pahwa, R, Lyons, KL, Wilkinson, SB, et al.Bilateral thalamic stimulation for the treatment of essential tremor. Neurology. 1999;53:14471450.
129.Limousin, P, Speelman, JD, Gielen, F, Janssens, M. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation in parkinsonian and essential tremor. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;66:289296.
130.Hariz, MI, Shamsgovara, P, Johansson, F, Hariz, G, Fodstad, H. Tolerance and tremor rebound following long-term chronic thalamic stimulation for Parkinsonian and essential tremor. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1999;72:208218.
131.Kronenbuerger, M, Fromm, C, Block, F, et al.On-demand deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: a report on four cases. Mov Disord. 2005;21:401405.
132.Dowsey-Limousin, P. Postoperative management of Vim DBS for tremor. Mov Disord. 2002;17 Suppl 3:S208S211.
133.Lozano, AM, Kumar, R, Gross, RE, et al.Globus pallidus internus pallidotomy for generalized dystonia. Mov Disord. 1997;12:865870.
134.Vercueil, L, Pollak, P, Fraix, V, et al.Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of severe dystonia. J Neurol. 2001;248:695700.
135.Krack, P, Vercueil, L, Review of the functional surgical treatment of dystonia. Eur J Neurol. 2001;8:389399.
136.Krauss, JK, Yianni, J, Loher, TJ, Aziz, TZ. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;21:1830.
137.Coubes, P, Echenne, B, Roubertie, A, et al.Treatment of early-onset generalized dystonia by chronic bilateral stimulation of the internal globus pallidus: apropos of a case. Neurochirurgie. 1999;45:139144.
138.Coubes, P, Roubertie, A, Vayssiere, N, Hemm, S, Echenne, B. Treatment of DYT1-generalized dystonia by stimulation of the internal globus pallidus. Lancet. 2000;355:22202221.
139.Krauss, JK, Pohle, T, Weber, S, Ozdoba, C, Burgunder, JM. Bilateral stimulation of the globus pallidus internus for treatment of cervical dystonia. Lancet. 1999;354:837838.
140.Krauss, JK, Loher, TJ, Weigel, R, Capelle, HH, Weber, S, Burgunder, JM. Chronic stimulation of the globus pallidus internus for treatment of non-dYT1 generalized dystonia and choreoathetosis: 2-year follow up. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:785792.
141.Bereznai, B, Steude, U, Seelos, K, Botzel, K. Chronic high-frequency globus pallidus internus stimulation in different types of dystonia: a clnical, video and MRI report of six patients presenting with segmental, cervical, and generalized dystonia. Mov Disord. 2002;17:138144.
142.Cif, L, EI Fertit, H, Vayssiere, N, et al.Treatment of dystonic syndromes by chronic electrical stimlulation of the internal globus pallidus. J Neurosurg Sci. 2003;47:5255.
143.Yianni, J, Bain, PG, Giladi, N, et al.Globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation for dystonic conditions: a prospective audit. Mov Disord. 2003;18:436442.
144.Vidailhet, M, Vercueil, L, Houeto, JL, et al.Bilateral deep-brain stimulation of the globus pallidus in primary generalized dystonia. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:459467.
145.Foote, KD, Sanchez, JC, Okun, MS. Staged deep brain stimulation for refractory craniofacial dystonia with blepharospasm: case report and physiology. Neurosurgery. 2005;56:E415.
146.Saxena, S, Brody, AL, Schwartz, JM, Baxter, LR. Neruoimaging and frontal-subcortical circuitry in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 1998;35:2637.
147.Angelini, I, Nardocci, N, Estienne, M, Conti, C, Dones, I, Broggi, G. Life-threatening dystonia-dyskinesia in a child: successful treatment with bilateral pallidal stimulation. Mov Disord. 2000;15:10101012.
148.Gill, S, Curran, A, Tripp, J, Melarickas, L, Hurran, C, Stanley, O. Hyperkinetic movement disorder in an 11-year-old child treated with bilateral stimulators. Develop Med Child Neurol. 2001;43:350353.
149.Lin, JJ, Lin, SZ, Chang, DC. Pallidotomy and generalized dystonia. Mov Disord. 1999;14:10571059.
150.Teo, C. Gunctional stereotactic surgery of movement disorders in cerebral palsy. In: Krauss, JK, Jankovic, J, Grossman, RG, eds Surgery for Parkinson&s Disease and Movement Disorders. Philadelphia, Penn: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001;410415.
151.Krauss, JK, Jankovic, J. Head injury and postraumatic movement disorders. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:927940.
152.Loher, TJ, Hasedemir, MG, Burgunder, JM, Krauss, JK. Long-term follow-up study of chronic globus pallidus internus stimulation for post-traumataic hemidystonia J Neurosurg. 2000;92:457460.
153.Yianni, J, Bain, P, Giladi, N, et al.Globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation for dystonic conditions: a prospective audit. Mov Disord. 2003;18:436442.
154.Krauss, JK, Yianni, J, Loher, TJ, Aziz, TZ. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;21:1830.
155.Trottenberg, T, Volkmann, J, Deuschl, G, et al.Treatment of severe tardive dystonia with pallidal deep brain stimulation. Neurology. 2005;64:344346.
156.Franzini, A, Marras, C, Ferroli, P, et al.Long-term high-frequency bilateral pallidal stimulation for neuroleptic-induced tardive dystonia. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:721725.
157.Magyar-Lehmann, S, Antomini, A, Roelcke, U, et al.Cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with spasmodic torticollis. Mov Disord. 1997;12:704708.
158.Naumann, M, Pirker, W, Reiners, K, Lange, KW, Becker, G, Brucke, T. Imaging the pre-and post-synaptic side of striatal dopmainergic synapses in idiopathic cervical dystonia: a SPECT study using 1231 epideprideand 1231 beta-CIT. Mov Disord. 1998;13:319323.
159.Tagliati, M, Shils, J, Sun, C, Alterman, R. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2004;1:3341.
160.Deuschl, G, Krack, P, Lauk, M, Timmer, J. Clinical neurophysiology of tremor. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1996;13:110121.
161.Alusi, SH, Worthington, J, Glickman, S, Bain, PG. A study of tremor in ultiple sclerosis. Brain. 2001;124:720730.
162.Andersson, PB, Goodkin, DE. Current pharmacologic treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms. West J Med. 1996;165:313317.
163.Clanet, MG, Brassat, D. The management of multiple sclerosis patients. Curr Opin Neurd. 2000;13:263270.
164.Metz, L. Multiple sclerosis: symptomatic therapies. Semin Neurol. 1998;18:389395.
165.Benabid, AL, Pollak, P, Gross, C, et al.Acute and long-term effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1994;62:7684.
166.Benabid, AL, Koudsie, A, Benazzouz, A, et al.Deep brain stimulation of the corpus luysi (subthalamic nucleus) and other targets in Parkinson's disease. Extension to new indications such as dystonia and epilepsy. J Neurol. 2001;248(suppl 3):III37III47.
167.Kim, MC, Son, BC, Miyagi, Y, Kang, JK. Vim thalamotomy for Holmes' tremor secondary to midbrain tumour. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;73:453455.
168.Deuschl, G, Wilms, H, Krack, P, Wurker, M, Heiss, WD. Function of the cerebellum in Parkinsonian rest tremor and Holmes' tremor. Ann Neurol. 1999;46:126128.
169.Krauss, JK, Mohadjer, M, Nobbe, R, Mundinger, F. The treatment of posttraumatic tremor by stereotactic surgery. Symptomatic and functional outcome in a series of 35 patients. J Neurosurg. 1994;80:810819.
170.Pahwa, R, Lyons, KE, Kempf, L, Wilkinson, SB, Koller, WC. Thalamic stimulation for midbrain tremor after partial hemangioma resection. Mov Disord. 2002;17:404407.
171.Samadani, U, Umemura, A, Jaggi, JL, Colcher, A, Zager, EL, Baltuch, GH. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for disabling tremor after excision of a midbrain cavernous angioma. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:888890.
172.Berk, C, Carr, J, Sinden, M, Martzke, J, Honey, CR. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of tremor due to multiple sclerosis: a prospective study of tremor and quality of life. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:815820.
173.Fernandez Gonzalez, F, Seijo, F, Salvador, C, et al.Applied neurophysiology in the deep brain stimulation treatment of multiple sclerosis tremor. [Spanish] Rev Neurol. 2001;32:559567.
174.Hooper, J, Taylor, R, Pentland, B, Whittle, IR. A prospective study of thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of movement disorders in multiple sclerosis. Br J Neurosurg. 2002;16:102109.
175.Hooper, J, Whittle, IR. Costs of thalamic deep brain stimulation for movement disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis. Br J Neurosurg. 2003;17:4045.
176.Nandi, D, Chir, M, Liu, X, et al.Electrophysiological confirmation of the zona incerta as a target for surgical treatment of disabling involuntary arm movements in multiple sclerosis: use of local field potentials. J Clin Neurosci. 2002;9:6468.
177.Schulder, M, Semas, T, Mahalick, D, Adler, R, Cook, S. Thalamic stimulation in patients with multiple sclerosis. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 1999;72:196201.
178.Nandi, D, Aziz, TZ. Deep brain stimulation in the management of neuropathic pain and multiple sclerosis tremor. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;21:3139.
179.Foote, KD, Okun, MS. Ventralis intermedins plus ventralis oralis anterior and posterior deep brain stimulation for posttraumatic Holmes tremor: two leads may be better than one: technical note. Neurosurgery. 2005;56(2 suppl):E445.
180.Foote, KD, Seignourel, P, Fernandez, HH, et al.Dual electrode thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of posttraumatic and multiple sclerosis tremor.Neurosurgery. 2006;58(4 suppl 2):ONS-280285.
181.Moniz, E. Prefrontal leucotomy in the treatment of mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1937;93:13791385.
182.Kramer, M. The 1951 survey of the use of psychosurgery. In: Mettler, FA, Overholster, W, eds. Proceedings of The Third Research Conference on Psychosurgery. Washington, DC: US Govt Printing Offc, 1954;159168. USPHS publication 221.
183.Kopell, BH, Greenberg, B, Rezai, AR. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;21:5167.
184.Mayberg, HS, Lozano, AM, Voon, V, et al.Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Neuron. 2005;45:651660.
185.Temel, Y, Visser-Vandewalle, V. Surgery in Tourette syndrome. Mov Disord. 2004;19:314.
186.Diederich, NJ, Kalteis, K, Stamenkovic, M, Pieri, V, Alesch, F. Efficient internal pallidal stimulation in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a case report. Mov Disord. 2005;20:14961499.
187.Flaherty, AW, Williams, ZM, Amirnovin, R, et al.Deep brain stimulation of the anterior internal capsule for the treatment of Tourette syndrome: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2005;57(4 suppl):E403.
188.Nuttin, B, Cosyns, P, Demeulemeester, H, Gybels, J, Meyerson, B. Elecrical stimulation in the anterior limbs of the internal capsules in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Lancet. 1999;354:1526.
189.Houeto, JL, Karachi, C, Mallet, L, et al.Tourette&s syndrome and deep brain stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:992995.
190.Nuttin, BJ, Gabriels, LA, Cosyns, PR, et al.Long-term electrical capsular stimulation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neurosurgery. 2003;52:12631274.
191.Anderson, D, Ahmed, A. Treatment of patients with intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder with anterior capsular stimulation. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:11041108.
192.Abelson, JL, Curtis, GC, Sagher, O, et al.Deep brain stimulation for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:510516.
193.Cummings, JL, Frankel, M. Gilles de la tourette syndrome and the neurological basis of obsessions and compulsions. Biol Psychiary. 1985;20:1171126.
194.Coffey, BJ, Miguel, EC, Jenike, MA. Tourette's disorder with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults: are they different? J Nerv Ment Dis. 1998;186:201206.
195.Singer, HS. Neurobiology of Tourette syndrome. Neurol Clin. 1997;15:357379.
196.Muller, N, Putz, A, Kathmann, N, Lehle, R, Gunther, W, Straube, A. Characteristics of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Parkinson's disease. Psychiatry Res. 1997;70:105114.
197.Saint-Cyr, JA, Taylor, AE, Nicholson, K. Behavior and the basal ganglia. Adv Neurol. 1995;65:128.
198.Papez, JW. A proposed mechanism of emotion. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1937;38:725743.
199.Modell, JG, Moutnz, JM, Curtis, GC, Greden, JF. Neurophysiologic dysfunction in basal ganglia/limbic striatal and thalamocortical circuits as a pathogenetic mechanism of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Psychiatry. 1989;1:2736.
200.Breiter, HC, Rauch, SL, Kwong, KK, et al.Functional magnetic resonance imaging of symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:595606.
201.Alexander, GE, Crutcher, MD, DeLong, MR. Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits: parallell substrates for motor, oculomotor, “preforntal”, and “limbic” functions. Prog Brain Res. 1990;85:119146.
202.Alexander, GE, DeLong, MR, Strick, PL. Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1986;9:357381.
203.Goldapple, K, Segal, Z, Garson, C, Lau, M, Bielling, P, Kennedy, S, Mayberg, H. Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61:3441.
204.Greenberg, BD, Price, LH, Rauch, SL, et al.Neurosurgery for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression: criticial issues. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2003;14:199212.
205.Kihlstrom, L, Hindmarsh, T, Lax, I, Lippitz, B, Mindus, P, Lindquist, C. Radiosurgical lesions in the normal human brain 17 years after gamma knife capsulotomy. Neurosurgery. 1997;4:395401.
206.Schmidek, HH, Sweet, WH, eds. Operative Neurosurgical Techniques: Indications, Methods, and Results. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Penn: Saunders. 1995;14431454.
207.Knight, G. Stereotactic tractotomy in the surgical treatment of mental illness. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1965;28:304310.
208.Mitchell-Heggs, N, Kelly, D, Richardson, A. Stereotactic limbic leucotomy—a follow-up at 16 months. Br J Psychiatry. 1976;128:226240.
209.Whitty, CW, Duffield, JE, Tov, PM, Cairns, H. Antterior cingulectomy in the treatment of mental disease. Lancet. 1952;1:475481.
210.Ballantine, HT, Cassidy, WL, Flanagan, NB, Marino, R. Stereotactic anterior cingulotomy for neuropsychiatric illness and intractable pain. J Neurosurg. 1967;26:488495.
211.Okun, MS, Bowers, D, Springer, U, et al.What's in a “smile?” Intra-operative observations of contralateral smiles induced by deep brain stimulation. Neurocase. 2004;10:271279.
212.Benabid, AL, Minotti, L, Koudsie, A, de Saint martin, A, Hirsch, E. Antiepileptic effect of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (corpus luysi) in a case of medically intractable epilepsy caused by focal dysplasia: a 30-month follow-up: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:13851391.
213.Hodaie, M, Wennberg, RA, Dostrovsky, JO, Lozano, AM. Chronic anterior thalamus stimulation for intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2002;43:603608.
214.Velasco, F, Velasco, M, Velasco, AL, Jimenez, F, Marquez, I, Rise, M. Electrical stimulation of the centromedian thaiamic nucleus in control of seizures: long-term studies. Epilepsia. 1995;36:6371.
215.Bittar, RG, Kar-Purkayastha, I, Owen, SL, et al.Deep brain stimulation for pain relief: a meta-analysis. J Clin Neurosci. 2005;12:515519.
216.Kleiner-Fisman, G, Fisman, DN, Kahn, Fl, Sime, E, Lozano, AM, Lang, AE. Motor cortical stimulation for parkinsonism in multiple system atrophy. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:15541558.
217.Katayama, Y, Fukaya, C, Hamamoto, T. Poststroke pain control by chronic motor cortext stimulation: neurological characteristics predicting a favorable repsonse. J Neurosurg. 1998;89:585591.
218.Nguyen, JP, Lefaucher, JP, Le Guerinel, C, et al.Motor cortex stimulation in the treatment of cetnral and neuropathic pain. Arch Med Res. 2000;31:263265.
219.Canavero, S, Bonicalzi, V. Therapeuetic extradural cortical stimulation for central and neuropathic pain: a review. Clin J Pain. 2002;18:4855.
220.Lang, AE, Widner, H. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: patient selection and evaluation. Mov Disord. 2002;17(suppl 3):S94S101.
221.Okun, MS, Tagliati, M, Pourfar, M, et al.Management of referred deep brain stimulation failures: a retrospective analysis from 2 movement disorders centers. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:12501255.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Lessons Learned in Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

  • Frank M. Skidmore, Ramon L. Rodriguez, Hubert H. Fernandez, Wayne K. Goodman, Kelly D. Foote and Michael S. Okun...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.