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Drug–drug interactions and clinical considerations with co-administration of antiretrovirals and psychotropic drugs

  • Kellie J. Goodlet (a1), Monika T. Zmarlicka (a2) and Alyssa M. Peckham (a3) (a4)


Psychotropic medications are frequently co-prescribed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), owing to a high prevalence of psychiatric illness within the population living with HIV, as well as a 7-fold increased risk of HIV infection among patients with psychiatric illness. While ART has been notoriously associated with a multitude of pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, the magnitude and clinical impact of these interactions with psychotropics may range from negligible effects on plasma concentrations to life-threatening torsades de pointes or respiratory depression. This comprehensive review summarizes the currently available information regarding drug–drug interactions between antiretrovirals and pharmacologic agents utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders—antidepressants, stimulants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, mood stabilizers, and treatments for opioid use disorder and alcohol use disorder—and provides recommendations for their management. Additionally, overlapping toxicities between antiretrovirals and the psychotropic classes are highlighted. Knowledge of the interaction and adverse effect potential of specific antiretrovirals and psychotropics will allow clinicians to make informed prescribing decisions to better promote the health and wellness of this high-risk population.


Corresponding author

*Address for correspondence: Kellie J. Goodlet, PharmD, 19555 N 59th Ave, Glendale, AZ 85308, USA. (Email:


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