Skip to main content Accessibility help

Does Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Belong Within the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum?

  • Naomi A. Fineberg, Punita Sharma, Thanusha Sivakumaran, Barbara Sahakian and Sam Chamberlain...


It has been proposed that certain Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I disorders share overlapping clinical features, genetic contributions, and treatment response and fall within an “obsessive-compulsive” spectrum. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) resembles obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other spectrum disorders in terms of phenomenology, comorbidity, neurocognition, and treatment response.This article critically examines the nosological profile of OCPD with special reference to OCD and related disorders. By viewing OCPD as a candidate member of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, we gain a fresh approach to understanding its neurobiology, etiology, and potential treatments.


Corresponding author

Please direct all correspondence to: Naomi A. Fineberg, MBBS, MA, MRCPsych, University of Hertfordshire, Postgraduate School of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, Welwyn Garden City, UK AL7 4HQ; Tel: 44-0-1707365085; E-mail:


Hide All
1.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed, text rev. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
2.Serpell, L, Livingstone, A, Neiderman, M, Lask, B. Anorexia nervosa: obsessivecompul sive disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, or neither? Clin Psychol Rev. 2002;22:647669.
3.Wu, KD, Clark, LA, Watson, D. Relations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and personality: beyond Axis I-Axis II comorbidity. J Anxiety Disord. 2006;20:695717.
4.Rasmussen, SA, Tsuang, MT. Clinical characteristics and family history in DSM-III obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1986;143:317322.
5.Black, DW. Noyes, R Jr, Pfohl, B, Goldstein, RB, Blum, N. Personality disorder in obsessive-compulsive volunteers, well comparison subjects, and their first-degree relatives. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:12261232.
6.Hollander, E, Wong, CM. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995;56(suppl 4):36; discussion 53–55.
7.Stein, DJ, Hollander, E. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995;56:265266.
8.Hollander, E, Rosen, J. Impulsivity. J Psychopharmacol. 2000;14(suppl 1):S39–44
9.Hollander, E, Allen, A. Is compulsive buying a real disorder, and is it really compulsive? Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:16701672.
10.Richter, MA, Summerfeldt, LJ, Antony, MM, Swinson, RP. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders. Depress Anxiety. 2003;18:118127.
11.Chamberlain, SR, Blackwell, AD, Fineberg, N, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. The neuro-psychology of obsessive compulsive disorder: the importance of failures in cognitive and behavioural inhibition as candidate endophenotypic markers. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29:399419.
12.Janet, Pierre. Les Obsessions et la Psychasthenie. Paris, France: Alcan Press; 1903.
13.Pitman, RK. Janet's Obsessions and Psychaesthenia: a synopsis. Psychiatr Q. 1984;56:291314.
14.Pitman, RK, Green, RC, Jenike, MA, Mesulam, MM. Clinical comparison of Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:11661171.
15.Freud, S. Character and anal eroticism. In: Strachey, J, ed. The standard edition of complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, vol 9. London, England: Hogarth Press; 1908:169175.
16.Jones, E. Anal-erotic character traits. In: Papers on psychoanalysis. 2nd ed. London, England: Bailliere Tindall; 1918:664668.
17.Abraham, K. Contribution to the theory of anal character. In: Lewin, BD, ed. On character and libido development. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc.; 1966:165187.
18.Kraepelin, E. Psychiatry. A Textbook for Students and Physicians, vol. 2. Canton, Mass: Science History Publications; 1990.
19.Lewis, A. Problems of obsessional illness. Proc Royal Soc Med. 1935;29:325336
20.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1952.
21.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1968.
22.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd ed. Washingtton, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1980.
23.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd ed, rev. Washingtton, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1987.
24.Grilo, CM, McGlashan, TH, Morey, LC, et al.Internal consistency, intercriterion overlap and diagnostic efficiency of criteria sets for DSM-IV schizotypal, borderline, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;104:264272.
25.Shea, MT, Stout, R, Gunderson, J, et al.Short-term diagnostic stability of schizo-typal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:20362041.
26.Grilo, CM, Skodol, AE, Gunderson, JG, et al.Longitudinal diagnostic efficiency of DSM-IV criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a 2-year prospective study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004;110:6468.
27.McGlashan, TH, Grilo, CM, Sanislow, CA, et al.Two-year prevalence and stability of individual DSM-IV criteria for schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: toward a hybrid model of axis II disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:883889.
28.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washingtton, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
29.Zanarini, MC, Skodol, AE, Bender, D, et al.The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study: reliability of axis I and II diagnoses. J Personal Disord. 2000;14:291299.
30.Costa, PT, McCrae, R. The five factor model of personality and its relevance to personality disorders: Reassessing personality disorder constructs. J Pers Disord. 1992;6:343359.
31.Widiger, TA. A dimensional model of personality disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2005;18:4143.
32.Watson, D, Clark, LA, Harkness, AR. Structures of personality and their relevance to psychopathology. J Abnorm Psychol. 1994;103:1831.
33.Reynolds, SK, Clark, LA. Predicting dimensions of personality disorder from domains and facets of the Five-Factor Model. J Pers. 2001;69:199222.
34.Haigler, ED, Widiger, TA. Experimental manipulation of NEO-PI-R items. J Pers Assess. 2001;77:339358.
35.De Fruyt, F, De Clercq, BJ, van de Wiele, L, Van Heeringen, K. The validity of Cloninger's psychobiological model versus the five-factor model to predict DSM-IV personality disorders in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample: domain facet and residualized facet descriptions. J Pers. 2006;74:473510.
36.International Classification of Diseases. 10th ed. Geneva, Swtizerland: World Health Organization; 1992.
37.Denys, D. On Certainty - Studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Utrecht, The Netherlands: University Medical Centre; 2004.
38.Rheaume, J, Freeston, MH, Dugas, MJ, Letarte, H, Ladouceur, R: Perfectionism, responsibility and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33:785794.
39.Foa, EB, Kozak, MJ, Goodman, WK, Hollander, E, Jenike, MA, Rasmussen, SA. DSM-IV field trial: obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:9096.
40.Mataix-Cols, D, Wooderson, S, Lawrence, N, Brammer, MJ, Speckens, A, Phillips, ML. Distinct neural correlates of washing, checking, and hoarding symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61:564576.
41.Devanand, DP, Turret, N, Moody, BJ, et al.Personality disorders in elderly patients with dysthymic disorder. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000;8:188195.
42.Wittchen, HU, Jacobi, F. Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe—a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. Eur Neumpsychopharmacol. 2005;15:357376.
43.Goodman, WK, Price, LH, Rasmussen, SA, et al.The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. I. Development, use, and reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:10061011.
44.Frost, RO, Krause, MS, Steketee, G. Hoarding and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Behav Modif. 1996;20:116132.
45.Frankenburg, FR. Hoarding in anorexia nervosa. Br J Med Psychol. 1984;57:5760.
46.Greenberg, D, Witztum, E, Levy, A. Hoarding as a psychiatric symptom. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51:417421.
47.Luchins, DJ, Goldman, MB, Lieb, M, Hanrahan, P. Repetitive behaviors in chronically institutionalized schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Res. 1992;8:119123.
48.Frost, RO, Gross, RC. The hoarding of possessions. Behav Res Ther. 1993;31:367381.
49.Baer, L. Factor analysis of symptom subtypes of obsessive compulsive disorder and their relation to personality and tic disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994;55(suppl):1823.
50.Seedat, S, Stein, DJ. Hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a preliminary report of 15 cases. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002;56:1723.
51.Frost, RO, Steketee, G, Williams, LF, Warren, R. Mood, personality disorder symptoms and disability in obsessive compulsive hoarders: a comparison with clinical and nonclinical controls. Behav Res Ther. 2000;38:10711081.
52.Mataix-Cols, D, Rauch, SL, Manzo, PA, Jenike, MA, Baer, L. Use of factor-analyzed symptom dimensions to predict outcome with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and placebo in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:14091416.
53.Winsberg, ME, Cassic, KS, Koran, LM. Hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a report of 20 cases. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60:591597.
54.Abramowitz, JS, Franklin, ME, Schwartz, SA, Furr, JM. Symptom presentation and outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;71:10491057.
55.Lochner, C, Seedat, S, Niehaus, DJ, Stein, DJ. Topiramate in the treatment of trichotillomania: an open-label pilot study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;21:255259.
56.Saxena, S, Brody, AL, Maidment, KM, et al.Cerebral glucose metabolism in obsessive-compulsive hoarding. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:10381048.
57.Steketee, G, Frost, R. Compulsive hoarding: current status of the research. Clin Psychol Rev. 2003;23:905927.
58.Wu, KD, Watson, D. Hoarding and its relation to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2005;43:897921.
59.Coles, ME, Frost, RO, Heimberg, RG, Steketee, G. Hoarding behaviors in a large college sample. Behav Res Ther. 2003;41:179194.
60.Spitzer, RL, Williams, JB, Gibbon, M. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II). New York, NY: New York State Psychiatric Institutel 1987.
61.Zanarini, MC, Frankenburg, FR, Chauncey, DL, Gunderson, JG. The diagnostic Interview for Personality Disorders: interrater and test-retest reliability. Compr Psychiatry. 1987;28:467480.
62.Pfohl, B, Stangl, DA, Zimmerman, M, Bowers, W, Corenthal, C. Structured interview for DSM-II Personality Disorders (SIDP). Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa; 1982.
63.Clark, LA, Harrison, JA. Assessment instruments. In: Livesley, WJ, ed. Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research and Treatment. New York, NY: Guidford Press; 2001:277306.
64.Ansseau, M. Serotonergic antidepressants in obsessive personality (NR198). In: 149th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. New York, NY: American Psychiatric Association; 1996:121122.
65.Samuels, J, Nestadt, G, Bienvenu, OJ, et al.Personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;177:457462.
66.Stein, DJ, Hollander, E, Mullen, LS. Comparison of clomipramine, alprazolam and placebo in the treatment of obnsessive compulsive disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. 1992;7:389395.
67.Hewitt, PL, Flett, GL. Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: conceptualization, assessment, and association with psycfiopathology. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1991;60:456470.
68.Frost, RO, Martin, P, Lahart, C, Rosenblate, R, Fischer, J, Corcoran, J. Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS). In: Measures for Clinical Practice: A Souwebook. New York, NY: Free Press; 1994:232235.
69.Nestadt, G, Romanoski, AJ, Brown, CH, et al.DSM-III compulsive personality disorder: an epidemiological survey. Psychol Med. 1991;21:461471.
70.Robins, LN, Helzer, JE, Weissman, MM, et al.Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in three sites. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984;41:949958.
71.Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Dernier, O, Jin, R, Merikangas, KR, Walters, EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:593602.
72.Heyman, I, Fombonne, E, Simmons, H, Ford, T, Meltzer, H, Goodman, R. Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the British nationwide survey of child mental health. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;179:324329.
73.Carter, JD, Joyce, PR, Mulder, RT, Sullivan, PF, Luty, SE. Gender differences in the frequency of personality disorders in depressed outpatients. J Personal Disord. 1999;13:6774.
74.Lochner, C, Hemmings, SM, Kinnear, CJ, et al.Gender in obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and genetic findings. Eur Neumpsychopharmacol. 2004;14:105113.
75.Eisen, JL. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder: its treatment and relationship to OCD. In: Syllabus and Proceedings Summary. American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting. New York, NY: American Psychiatric Association; 2004:176.
76.Nestadt, G, Samuels, J, Riddle, M, et al.A family study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57:358363.
77.Nestadt, G, Lan, T, Samuels, J, et al.Complex segregation analysis provides compelling evidence for a major gene underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder and for heterogeneity by sex. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;67:16111616.
78.Thomsen, PH, Jensen, J. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: admission patterns and diagnostic stability. A case-register study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1994;90:1924.
79.Pollitt, J, Tyrer, P. Compulsive personality as predictor of response to serotonergic antidepressants. Br J Psychiatry. 1992;161:836838.
80.McGlashan, TH, Grilo, CM, Skodol, AE, et al.The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study: baseline Axis I/II and II/II diagnostic co-occurrence. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;102:256264.
81.Pigott, TA, L'Heureux, F, Dubbert, B, Bernstein, S, Murphy, DL. Obsessive compulsive disorder: comorbid conditions. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994;55(suppl):1527; discussion 28-32.
82.Eisen, JL, Coles, ME, Shea, MT, et al.Clarifying the convergence between obsessive compulsive personality disorder criteria and obsessive compulsive disorder. J Personal Disord. 2006;20:294305.
83.Rossi, A, Marinangeli, MG, Butti, G, et al.Personality disorders in bipolar and depressive disorders. J Affect Disord. 2001;65:38.
84.Angst, J, Gamma, A, Endrass, J, et al.Obsessive-compulsive syndromes and disorders: significance of comorbidity with bipolar and anxiety syndromes. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;255:6571.
85.Brooks, R, Balthazar, P, McDowell, D, Munjack, D, Bruns, J. Personality disorders co-occuring with panic disorder with agoraphobia. J Pers Disorders. 1991;5:328336.
86.Albert, U, Maina, G, Forner, F, Bogetto, F. DSM-IV obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: prevalence in patients with anxiety disorders and in healthy comparison subjects. Compr Psychiatry. 2004;45:325332.
87.Black, A. The natural history of obsessional neurosis. In: Beech, HR, ed. Obsessional States. London, England: Methuen Press; 1974:1954.
88.Black, DW, Noyes, R. Obsessive compulsive disorder and Axis II. Int Rev Psychiatry. 1997;9:111118.
89.Pfohl, B, Black, DW, Noyes, R, Coryell, WH, Barrash, J. Axis I and axis II comorbidity findings: implications for validity. In: Oldham, JM, ed. Personality Disorders: New Perspectives of Diagnostic Validity. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1990:147161.
90.Stanley, MA, Turner, SM, Borden, JW. Schizotypal features in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1990;31:511518.
91.Baer, L, Jenike, MA. Personality disorders in obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1992;15:803812.
92.Diaferia, G, Bianchi, I, Bianchi, ML, Cavedini, P, Erzegovesi, S, Bellodi, L. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1997;38:3842.
93.Joffe, RT, Swinson, RP, Regan, JJ. Personality features of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1988;145:11271129.
94.Baer, L, Jenike, MA, Ricciardi, JN 2nd, et al.Standardized assessment of personality disorders in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;47:826830.
95.Mavissakalian, M, Hamann, MS, Jones, B. A comparison of DSM-III personality disorders in panic/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1990;31:238244.
96.Rodrigues Torres, A, Del Porto, JA. Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorders. A Brazilian controlled study. Psychopathology. 1995;28:322329.
97.Pinto, A, Mancebo, MC, Eisen, JL, Pagano, ME, Rasmussen, SA. The Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study: clinical features and symptoms of the sample at intake. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:703711.
98.Nilsson, EW, Gillberg, C, Gillberg, IC, Rastam, M. Ten-year follow-up of adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa: personality disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38:13891395.
99.Anderluh, MB, Tchanturia, K, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Treasure, J. Childhood obsessive-compulsive personality traits in adult women with eating disorders: defining a broader eating disorder phenotype. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:242247.
100.Grilo, CM, McGlashan, TH. Convergent and discriminant validity of DSM-IV axis II personality disorder criteria in adult outpatients with binge eating disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2000;41:163166.
101.Karwautz, A, Troop, NA, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Collier, DA, Treasure JL Personality disorders and personality dimensions in anorexia nervosa. J Personal Disord. 2003;17:7385.
102.Nestadt, G, Samuels, J, Riddle, MA, et al.The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety and affective disorders: results from the Johns Hopkins OCD Family Study. Psychol Med 2001;31:481487.
103.Wellen, D, Samuels, J, Bienvenu, OJ, et al.Utility of the Leyton Obsessional Inventory to distinguish OCD and OCPD. Depress Anxiety. In press.
104.Mataix-Cols, D, Baer, L, Rauch, SL, Jenike, MA. Relation of factor-analyzed symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder to personality disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;102:199202.
105.Hasler, G, LaSalle-Ricci, VH, Ronquillo, JG, et al.Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom dimensions show specific relationships to psychiatric comorbidity. Psychiatry Res. 2005;135:121132.
106.Ecker, W, Gonner, S. The feeling of incompleteness. Rediscovery of an old psychopathological symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Nervenarzt. 2006;77:1115–1120, 1122.
107.Halmi, KA, Tozzi, F, Thornton, LM, et al.The relation among perfectionism, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder in individuals with eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 2005;38:371374.
108.Grilo, CM. Factor structure of DSM-IV criteria for obsessive compulsive personality disorder in patients with binge eating disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004;109:6469.
109.Lochner, C, Kinnear, CJ, Hemmings, SM, et al.Hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and genetic correlates. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:11551160.
110.Light, KJ, Joyce, PR, Luty, SE, et al.Preliminary evidence for an association between a dopamine D3 receptor gene variant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in patients with major depression. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141:409413.
111.Perez, M, Brown, JS, Vrshek-Schallhorn, S, Johnson, F, Joiner, TE Jr.Differentiation of obsessive-compulsive-, panic-, obsessive-compulsive personality-, and non-disordered individuals by variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. J Anxiety Disord. 2006;20:794806.
112.Torgersen, S, Lygren, S, Oien, PA, et al.A twin study of personality disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 2000;41:416425.
113.Lilenfeld, LR, Kaye, WH, Greeno, CG, et al.A controlled family study of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives and effects of proband comorbidity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:603610.
114.Irle, E, Exner, C, Thielen, K, Weniger, G, Ruther, E. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions: clinical and neuropsychological findings. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:255263.
115.Newman, ME, Shapira, B, Lerer, B. Evaluation of central serotonergic function in affective and related disorders by the fenfluramine challenge test: a critical review. Int J Neuropsychopharmcol. 1998;1:4969.
116.Monteleone, P, Brambilla, F, Bortolotti, F, La Rocca, A, Maj, M. Prolactin response to d-fenfluramine is blunted in people with anorexia nervosa. Br J Psychiatry. 1998;172:439442.
117.Monteleone, P, Brambilla, F, Bortolotti, F, Ferraro, C, Maj, M. Plasma prolactin response to D-fenfluramine is blunted in bulimic patients with frequent binge episodes. Psychol Med. 1998;28:975983.
118.Stein, DJ, Trestman, RL, Mitropoulou, V, Coccaro, EF, Hollander, E, Siever, LJ. Impulsivity and serotonergic function in compulsive personality disorder. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1996;8:393398.
119.Fineberg, NA, Roberts, A, Montgomery, SA, Cowen, PJ. Brain 5-HT function in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prolactin responses to d-fenfluramine. Br J Psychiatry. 1997;171:280282.
120.Dinn, WM, Harris, CL, Aycicegi, A, Greene, P, Andover, MS. Positive and negative schizotypy in a student sample: neurocognitive and clinical correlates. Schizophr Res. 2002;56:171185.
121.Kuelz, AK, Hohagen, F, Voderholzer, U. Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review. Biol Psychol. 2004;65:185236.
122.Chamberlain, SR, Blackwell, AD, Fineberg, NA, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. Strategy implementation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania. Psychol Med. 2006;36:9197.
123.Chamberlain, SR, Blackwell, AD, Fineberg, NA, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. Impaired cognitive flexibility and motor inhibition in unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients: on the trail of endophenotypes. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;164:335338.
124.Chamberlain, SR, Fineberg, NA, Blackwell, AD, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:12821284.
125.Fontenelle, LF, Mendlowicz, MV, Paulo, M, Marcio, V. Neuropsychological findings in obsessive-compulsive disorder and its potential implications for treatment. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2006;2:1126.
126.Chamberlain, SR, Fineberg, NA, Blackwell, AD, Clark, L, Robbins, TW, Sahakian, BJ. A neuropsychological comparison of obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania. Neuropsychologia. 2007;45:654662.
127.Montgomery, SA, Asberg, M. A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry. 1979;134:382389.
128.Tchanturia, K, Morris, RG, Anderluh, MB, Collier, DA, Nikolaou, V, Treasure, J. Set shifting in anorexia nervosa: an examination before and after weight gain, in full recovery and relationship to childhood and adult OCPD traits. J Psychiatr Res. 2004;38:545552.
129.Hamilton, M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960;23:5662.
130.Volavka, J, Neziroglu, F, Yaryura-Tobias, JA. Clomipramine and imipramine in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1985;14:8593.
131.Ekselius, L, Von Knorring, L. Changes in personality traits during treatment with sertraline orcitalopram. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;174:444448.
132.Ricciardi, JN, Baer, L, Jenike, MA, Fischer, SC, Sholtz, D, Buttolph, ML. Changes in DSM-III-R axis II diagnoses following treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149:829831.
133.Cavedini, P, Erzegovesi, S, Ronchi, P, Bellodi, L. Predictive value of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in antiobsessional pharmacological treatment. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1997;7:4549.
134.Ansseau, M, Troisfontaines, B, Papart, P, von Frenckell, R. Compulsive personality as predictor of response to serotoninergic antidepressants. BMJ. 1991;303:760761.
135.Zimmerman, M, Coryell, WH. DSM-III personality disorder dimensions. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1990;178:686692.
136.Lawrence, NS, Wooderson, S, Mataix-Cols, D, David, R, Speckens, A, Phillips, ML. Decision making and set shifting impairments are associated withdistinct symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychology 2006;20:409419.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Does Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Belong Within the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum?

  • Naomi A. Fineberg, Punita Sharma, Thanusha Sivakumaran, Barbara Sahakian and Sam Chamberlain...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.