1.Hoehn-Saric, R, Benkelfat, C. Structural and functional brain imaging in obsessive compulsive disorder. In: Hollander, E, Zohar, J, Marazzati, D, and Olivier, B, eds. Current Insights in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 1995:183–211.
2.Baxter, LR. PET studies of cerebral function in major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder: the emerging prefrontal consensus. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1991;3:103–109.
3.Baxter, LR, Schwartz, JM, Guze, BH, et al. Neuroimaging in obsessive-compulsive disorder: seeking the mediating neuroanatomy. In: Jenicke, MA, Baer, L, Minichiello, WE, eds. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: Theory and Management. 2nd ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1990:167–188.
4.Baxter, LR, Schwartz, JM, Guze, BH, et al. PET imaging in obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990:51 (suppl):61–69.
5.Baxter, LR, Schwartz, JM. Guze, BH. Brain imaging: toward a neuroanatomy of OCD. In: Zohar, Y, Insel, TR, Rasmussen, S, eds. The Psychobiology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. New York: Springer Verlag; 1991:101–125.
6.Insel, TR, Winslow, JT. Neurobiology of obsessive-compul- sive disorder. In: Jenicke, MA, Baer, L, Minichiello, WE, eds. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: Theory and Management, 2nd ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1990:116–131.
7.Insel, TR, Donnelly, EF, Lalakea, ML, et al. Neurological and neuropsychological studies of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1983:18:741–751.
8.Behar, D, Rapoport, JL, Berg, CJ, et al. Computerized tomography and neuropsychological test measures in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1984:141:363–369.
9.Luxenberg, JS, Swedo, SE, Flamant, MF, et al. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder determined with quantitative x-ray computed tomography. Am J Psychiatry. 1988;145:1089–1093.
10.Garber, HJ, Ananth, JV, Chiu, LC, et al. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1989:146:1001–1005.
11.Kellner, CH, Jolley, RR, Holgate, RC, et al. Brain MRI in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 1991:36:45–49.
12.Scarone, S, Colombo, C, Livian, S, et al. Increased right caudate nucleus size in obsessive-compulsive disorder: detection with magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Res. 1992:45:115–121.
13.Zohar, J, Insel, TR, Berman, KF, et al. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge: dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989:46:505–510.
14.Rubin, RT, Villanueva-Meyer, J, Ananth, J, et al. Regional 133Xe cerebral blood flow and cerebral 99m- HMPAO uptake in unmedicated obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and matched normal control subjects: determination by high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49:695–702.
15.Hollander, E, Prohovnik, I, Stein, DJ. Increased cerebral blood flow during m-CPP exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Neuropsychiatry. 1995;7:485–490.
16.Machlin, SR, Harris, GJ, Pearlson, GD, et al. Elevated medial-frontal cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive patients: a SPECT study. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:1240–1242.
17.Hoehn-Saric, R, Pearlson, GD, Harris, GJ, et al. Effects of fluoxetine on regional cerebral blood flow in obsessive-compulsive patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;48:1243–1245.
18.Adams, BL, Warneke, LB, McEwan, AJB, et al. Single photon emission computerized tomography in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a preliminary study. J Psychiatr Neurosci. 1993:18:109–112.
19.Sorenson, JA, Phelps, ME. Physics in nuclear medicine. Philadelphia Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1987.
20.Andreasen, NC. Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1989.
21.Baxter, LR, Phelps, ME, Mazziotta, JC, et al. Local cerebral glucose metabolic rates in obsessive-compulsive disorder—a comparison with rates in unipolar depression and in normal controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1987;44:211–218.
22.Baxter, LR, Schwartz, JM, Mazziotta, JC, et al. Cerebral glucose metabolic rates in non-depressed obsessive-compulsives. Am J Psychiatry. 1988;145:1560–1563.
23.Nordahl, TE, Benkelfat, C, Semple, WE. et al. Cerebral glucose metabolic rates in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1989:2:23–28.
24.Swedo, SE, Schapiro, MG, Grady, CL, et al. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989:46:518–523.
25.Horwitz, B, Swedo, SE, Grady, CL, et al. Cerebral metabolic pattern in obsessive-compulsive disorder: altered intercorrelations between regional rates of glucose utilization. Psychiatry Res. 1991:40:221–237.
26.Martinot, JL, Allilaire, JF, Mazoyer, BM, et al. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical, neuropsychological and positron emission tomography study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990:82:233–242.
27.Martinot, JL, Hardy, P, Feline, A, et al. Left prefrontal glucose hypometabolism in the depressed state: a confirmation. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:1313–1317.
28.Sawle, GV, Hymas, NF, Lees, AJ, et al. Obsessional slowness: functional studies with positron emission tomography. Brain. 1991:114:2191–2202.
29.Mindus, P, Nyman, H, Mogard, J, et al. Orbital and caudate glucose metabolism studied by positron emission tomography (PET) in patients undergoing capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. In: Jenicke, MA, Asberg, M, eds. Understanding Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Toronto: Hogrefe and Huber Publishers; 1991:52–57.
30.Swedo, SE, Pietrini, P, Leonard, HL, et al. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: revlsualization during pharmacotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49:690–694.
31.Benkelfat, C, Nordahl, TE, Semple, WE, et al. Local cerebral glucose metabolic rates in obsessive-compulsive disorder: patients treated with clomipramine. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990:47:840–848.
32.Baxter, LR, Schwartz, JM, Bergman, KS, et al. Caudate glucose metabolic rate changes with both drug and behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49:681–689.
33.Perani, D, Colombo, C, Bressi, S, et al. [18F]FDG PET Study in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a clinical/metabolic correlation study after treatment. Br J Psychiatry. 1995;166:244–250.
34.Schwartz, JM, Stoessel, PW, Baxter, LR, et al. Systematic changes in cerebral glucose metabolic rate after successful behavior modification treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996:53:109–113.
35.Rauch, SL, Jenike, MA, Alpert, NM, et al. Regional cerebral blood flow measured during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder using oxygen 15-labeled carbon dioxide and positron emission tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51:62–70.
36.McGuire, PK, Bench, CJ, Frith, CD, et al. Functional anatomy of obsessive-compulsive phenomena. Br J Psychiatry. 1994:164:459–468.
37.Rapoport, JL, Wise, SP. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: is it a basal ganglia dysfunction? Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988:24:380–384.
38.Insel, TR. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a neuroethological perspective. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988:24:365–369.
39.Modell, JG, Mountz, JM, Curtis, GC, et al. Neurophysiologic dysfunction in basal ganglia/limbic striatal and thalamocortical circuits as a pathogenetic mechanism of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Neumpsychiatry. 1989:1:27–36.
40.Alexander, GE, DeLong, MR, Strick, PL. Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Ann Rev Neurosci. 1986:9:357–381.
41.Cummings, JL. Frontal-subcortical circuits and human behavior. Arch Neurol. 1993:50:873–880.
42.Gerfen, CR. The neostriatal mosaic: multiple levels of compartmental organization in the basal ganglia. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1992:15:285–320.
43.Iversen, SD. Behavioral aspects of cortico-subcortical interaction with special reference to frontostriatal relations. In: Reinoso-Suarez, G, Ajmone-Marsan, C, eds. Cortical Integration. New York: Raven Press; 1984.
44.Joel, D, Weinger, J. the organization of the basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits: open interconnected rather than closed segregated. Neuroscience. 1994:63:363–379.
45.Nauta, WJH, Domesick, VB. Afferent and efferent relationships of the basal ganglia. Functions of the Basal Ganglia. London: Pitman (CIBA Foundation Symposium #107); 1984:3–29.
46.Parent, A. Comparative Neumbiology of the Basal Ganglia. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1986.
47.Parent, A, Hazrati, L-N. Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I: the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loop. Brain Res Rev. 1995:20:91–127.
48.Parent, A, Hazrati, L-N. Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia: II. the place of subthalamic nucleus and external pallidum in basal ganglia circuitry. Brain Res Rev. 1995;20:128–154.
49.Swerdlow, NR, Koob, GF. Dopamine, schizophrenia, mania and depression: toward a unified hypothesis of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic function. Behav Brain Sci. 1987:10:197–245.
50.Baxter, LR, Schwartz, JM, Guze, BH, Bergman, K, Szuba, MP. Neuroimaging in obsessive-compulsive disorders: seeking the mediating neuroanatomy. In: Jenike, MA, Baer, L, Minichiello, WE, eds. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders: Theory and Management, 2nd ed., Chicago: Year Book; 1990:167–188.
51.Baxter, LR, Schwartz, JM, Phelps, ME, et al. Reduction of prefrontal cortex glucose metabolism common to three types of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:243–250.
52.Hall, H, Sedvall, G, Magnusson, O, et al. Distribution of D1 and D2-dopamine receptors, and dopamine and its metaboltes in the human brain. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1994;11:245–256.
53.Gerfen, CR, Engber, TM, Mahan, LC, et al. D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. Science. 1990:250:1429–1432.
54.Baxter, LR, Phelps, ME, Mazziotta, JC, et al. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985:42:441–447.
55.Baxter, LR, Guze, BH: Neuroimaging in Tourette's and related disorders. In: Kurland, R, ed. Handbook of Tourette's Syndrome and Related Tic and Behavioral Disorders. Paris: Marcel Dekker; 1993:289–304.
56.Braun, AR, Randolph, C, Stoetter, B, et al. The functional neuroanatomy of Tourette's syndrome: an FDG-PET study. I: relationships between regional cerebral metabolism and associated behavioral and cognitive features of the illness. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1995:13:151–168.
57.Insel, TR. Toward a neuroanatomy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992:49:739–744.
58.Lavoie, B, Parent, A. Immunohistochemical study of the serotoninergic innervation of the basal ganglia in the squirrel monkey. J Comp Neurology. 1990:299:1–16.
59.Palacios, JM, Wawber, C, Hoyer, D, Mengod, G. Distribution of serotonin receptors. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;600:36–52.
60.Pazos, A, Gonzalez, AM, Waeber, C, Palacios, JM. Multiple serotonin receptors in the human brain. In: Receptors in the Human Nervous System. New York: Academic Press; 1991:71–101
61.Mansari, ME, Bouchard, C, Blier, P. Alteration of serotonin release in the guinea pig orbito-frontal cortex by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1995:13:117–127.
62.Baxter, LR, Saxena, S, Brody, AL, et al. Brain mediation of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms: evidence from functional brain imaging studies in the human and non-human primate. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 1996:1:32–47.